BRI UPSC -Belt And Road Initiative -India & China -Mind Map- This is the Most Talked issue in Recent Time. Belt And Road Initiative By china play An Important Role In International Politics. In this Post we Will Talk About Various Dimensions Of This topic
- What is Belt And Road Initiative ?
- What Are The Significance of Belt And Road Initiative?
- How Many Countries Are Along BRI
- Why India Opposes or What Is India Stand ?
- Why India Should Join Belt And Road Initiative ?
What is Belt And Road Initiative ?
- The Belt and Road Initiative is a Chinese foreign policy initiative promoted by president Xi Jinping in 2013
- Initially the idea of Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) and Maritime Silk Road (MSR) was put forward
- Subsequently, the two projects together came to be known as ‘One Belt One Road’ (OBOR) Initiative.
- Later, it came to be known as Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)
Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) + Maritime Silk Road (MSR) = ‘One Belt One Road’ (OBOR) = Later Known As Road And Belt Initiative
What Are The Main Objective Of Belt and Road Initiative
- Building Trade ,Investment And Infrastructure Network .
- Linking Africa ,Asia and Europe Through Ancient Routes
What Are The Significance of Belt And Road Initiative For China ?
- Financial Institution Promotion
- Increasing Maritime Power Of China
- This Will help In development Of Western Provinces Of china . China Has Already Mentioned that Xinjiang Is the Main Part Of or Core Zone Of Silk Road Economic Belt .China Has Announced Many Incentives or Offers For Businesses and Developers.
- This Help China By providing Better Access Of Transportation And Direct Access of European Market.
- Energy route: Creation of an energy route from the Middle East and Africa. This will act as a proof against any possible prohibition at points like Hormuz and the Malacca strait
- Boost to domestic infrastructure industry
- Trading norms and regimes: Help China to compete with Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) and Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) or any other future mechanisms which seek to establish new trading norms
- More Growth For China Economy.
- More Industrial Growth And Backward Western provinces Development.
- China can Access Mineral and Oil Rich Countries Direct – Africa And Middle East Countries .
What Are The Main Challenges For Belt And Road Initiative ?
- High Development Cost Of This Project
- Political Instability Along With BRI Region Countries .
- Most Of These Countries Along With BRI Are Developing Countries . Do Not Have Enough Fund And Infrastructure .
- Regional Disparity and Ethnic Tensions in China is Another Big Problem For This Project.
- Cooperation From Neighbouring Countries Also A Big Problem.
- Another Big Problem Is Related With Transparency And Documentation . Ex Pakistan Withdraw from – Diamer-Bhasha dam with China,Nepal Cancel Deal With Chinese Company for = Diamer-Bhasha dam
- Environment And Biodiversity Consequences for Countries .
- Most Of countries Do Not Want China to become a Super Power . So They Are Not co Operating.
India And BRI – Belt And Road Initiative
India has opposed the BRI and did not attend the 2017 BRI Summit held in Beijing. It cited issues of sovereignty, transparency and unilateral decision making. Here Are Some problem and india Stand For BRI .
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)
- This is the Main Part Of Belt and Road Initiative .
- India Oppose This corridore Always .
- he CPEC passes through Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (Gilgit-Baltistan). As both India and Pakistan claim all of Kashmir, the area is considered a disputed territory by India. According to India, it undermines India’s strategic interests and territorial integrity
- Another Big Problem is Gwadar Port . If this Project is Completed Than China Will Direct Access Gwadar Port And Will Manage Maritime Trade And Security
- India has alleged that China has taken unilateral decisions. There has been lack of consultations with India before the launch of BRI.
- India has highlighted the importance of openness and transparency
- According to India, mutual agreements on infrastructure projects should be transparent and debt repayments be made easier for recipient countries
Concern over China’s expanding presence in neighbouring countries and Indian Ocean:
- China’s port development projects in the Indian Ocean raises security concerns for India.
- Increasing Chinese presence in Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar has raised concerns for India
Advantages for India if joined BRI
- Direct Access To Africa And Central Asia
- Economic Benefits – Trade,Business And Business Engagement .
- Energy: BRI is expected to normalize India-Pakistan ties. This would remove the obstacles to the implementation of two major energy cooperation projects: the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline and the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) gas pipeline. This is crucial for India’s energy security.
Improve Indo-China ties; India and China may cooperate at many global fronts.
- Security: Development in Gilgit- Baltistan area would help to curb security threats
- All neighbouring countries (except Bhutan) and other countries from South-East Asia, Central Asia has joined BRI. Thus, not joining BRI may lead to the isolation of India
- Many geopolitical issues and differences can be resolved through economic integration.
Way Forward for Belt and Road Initiative
- More than 65 countries- nearly every country in Asia (barring few like Bhutan, Japan), East and Central Europe have joined BRI
- With the rise of protectionism, the BRI would give boost to Asian trade
- The future of BRI largely depends on how China manages its debt as 23 countries that joined BRI are at debt distress.
- Further, regional cooperation, political stability in countries along BRI is important for BRI to succeed