Child Labour Conventions Ratification By India in 2018 – UPSC Mains – Child Labour Conventions Ratification By India in 2018 – UPSC Mains

Child Labour Conventions Ratification By India in 2018 - UPSC Mains

According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Children – that India ratified in 1992 – all children are born with fundamental rights.

  • Right to Survival – to life, health, nutrition, name, nationality
  • Right to Development – to education, care, leisure, recreation, cultural activities
  • Right to Protection – from exploitation, abuse, neglect
  • Right to Participation – to expression, information, thought, religion

Why in news?

  • India ratified two key global conventions on combating child labour.

What are the conventions?

  • India ratified Conventions 138 and Convention 182.
  • Convention 138 calls for the minimum age for employment not to be less than the age of completion of
    compulsory schooling.
  • It is 14 years of age in case of India.
  • Convention 182 calls for elimination of the worst forms of child labor.

What is the significance?

  • India has ratified six out of eight core ILO conventions.
  • Four other conventions were related to abolition of forced labor, equal remuneration and no discrimination
    between men and women in employment and occupation.
  • Countries which ratify any of the ILO conventions have to go through a periodical reporting system every four
  • So the government has to prove they are making progress.
  • Conventions 138 and 182 of the United Nations body leave it to the member-states to determine what
    constitutes acceptable or unacceptable work for children at different ages.
  • It will also ensure compliance of the government‘s n2016 legislation

What are the provisions of the act?

  • The Central government had Child labor (Prohibition and Prevention) amendment Act, 2016.
  • It banned the employment of child labor below 14 years of age in all occupations and processes.
  • It linked the age of employment for children to the age of compulsory education under Right to Education Act
    (RTE), 2009.
  • It prohibited employment of adolescents (14-18 years of age) in hazardous occupations.
  • But children were allowed to ―help‖ families in running their domestic enterprises after school hours.
  • Given the sensitivities involved in monitoring activities within traditional households, effective enforcement
    will pose a challenge.
  • Several industries were also declassified from being hazardous occupations.
  • Rescue of vulnerable children is still uncertain