Child Labour Conventions Ratification By India in 2018 – UPSC Mains – Child Labour Conventions Ratification By India in 2018 – UPSC Mains
According to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Children – that India ratified in 1992 – all children are born with fundamental rights.
- Right to Survival – to life, health, nutrition, name, nationality
- Right to Development – to education, care, leisure, recreation, cultural activities
- Right to Protection – from exploitation, abuse, neglect
- Right to Participation – to expression, information, thought, religion
Why in news?
- India ratified two key global conventions on combating child labour.
What are the conventions?
- India ratified Conventions 138 and Convention 182.
- Convention 138 calls for the minimum age for employment not to be less than the age of completion of
- It is 14 years of age in case of India.
- Convention 182 calls for elimination of the worst forms of child labor.
What is the significance?
- India has ratified six out of eight core ILO conventions.
- Four other conventions were related to abolition of forced labor, equal remuneration and no discrimination
between men and women in employment and occupation.
- Countries which ratify any of the ILO conventions have to go through a periodical reporting system every four
- So the government has to prove they are making progress.
- Conventions 138 and 182 of the United Nations body leave it to the member-states to determine what
constitutes acceptable or unacceptable work for children at different ages.
- It will also ensure compliance of the government‘s n2016 legislation
What are the provisions of the act?
- The Central government had Child labor (Prohibition and Prevention) amendment Act, 2016.
- It banned the employment of child labor below 14 years of age in all occupations and processes.
- It linked the age of employment for children to the age of compulsory education under Right to Education Act
- It prohibited employment of adolescents (14-18 years of age) in hazardous occupations.
- But children were allowed to ―help‖ families in running their domestic enterprises after school hours.
- Given the sensitivities involved in monitoring activities within traditional households, effective enforcement
will pose a challenge.
- Several industries were also declassified from being hazardous occupations.
- Rescue of vulnerable children is still uncertain