COASTAL EROSION PDF -Causes,Impact,Mitigation MeasuresThe shorelines and beaches in India serve multidimensional needs such as recreational purpose, seaport for maritime commerce, residential and commercial structures, etc. With the growth of population in the coastal zone, more competing pressures are being put on the shores and beaches. Developmental activities along India’s coastal areas have increased extensively in recent decades and this trend is expected to continue. Due to this the erosion rate has increased.

COASTAL EROSION PDF -Causes,Impact,Mitigation Measures

COASTAL EROSION PDF -Causes,Impact,Mitigation Measures

Causes of coastal erosion

  1. a) Global warming
  2. b) Reclamation of land in certain areas, land erosion;
  3. c) Economic activities of construction etc. in the coastal zone areas.
  4. d) Abrasive action along sand and gravel moved by the waves.
  5. e) Destruction of mangroves, which act as a natural safeguard.
  6. f) Flooding of river during monsoon also lead to inundation and causes sea erosion.
  7. g) Worldwide increase in the scale and density of human occupation across shoreline.

Impact of coastal erosion

  • Immediate Effects
  1. a) Removal of small islands.
  2. b) Loss of beach sediments.
  3. c) Destruction of existing habitats of shore flora and fauna.
  4. d) Weakening and destruction of sea walls, revetments, bulkheads and other coastal defences.
  5. e) Loss of agricultural land.
  6. f) Deposition of sediment on productive lands.
  7. g) Damage and destruction of jetties.
  8. h) Damage and destruction of boat-launching facilities, septic tanks, water tanks, and building foundations.
  9. i) Disruption of communications caused by collapse of seafront, bridge, road, and railway foundations.

Secondary Effects

  1. a) Loss of income for those who are dependent on coastal areas.
  2. b) Reduction of protection against future storms.
  3. c) Creation of unstable cliff slopes.
  4. d) Pollution of beaches caused by broken sewer lines.
  5. e) Silting and invasion of saline water behind breached defences.
  6. f) Flooding of land areas behind breached defences.
  7. g) Scarcity of drinking water

Mitigation measures

  1. Offshore breakwaters to reduce the face of tidal surges before these reach the land.
  2. Seawalls to reduce flooding inland; including the initial surges.
  3. Construct concrete floodwalls to direct floodwaters away from populated areas.
  4. Bulkheads, to-hold landfill in place.
  5. Soft” Engineering Approach includes: Sand lls; Sand fences; Beach grasses and Salt marshes.
  6. The “passive” or non-structural approaches include using zoning regulations to limit -development.
  7. Using building codes to reduce damage from ooding and winds.
  8. Afforestation programme with suitable species
  9. In all vulnerable coastal areas the Coastal Zone Management should be effectively introduced.
  10. The traditional knowledge of the local people should be tapped and used for sustainable development.
UPSC Prelims 2020 Test Series 400+ Tests Pdf Solution
 
Daily The Hindu News Paper 2019 Pdf Free
 

Follow US On Telegram For Latest Materials 

Join StudyDhaba.Com Telegram Channel – t.me/studydhaba

Latest Current Affairs Magazine 2019 Pdf 

UPSC Prelims ,Mains ,Optional Study Materials

UPSC Prelims Test Series 2020 Pdf Download

UPSC Mains Test Series 2019-2020 Download

UPSC Optional Test Series 2019-2020 Download 

SSC Study Materials 2019-2020 Pdf Download

IBPS Study Material 2019-2020 Pdf Download 

Insurance Exams Free Study Materials Pdf 2019

NEET Exam Free Study Material Pdf Download 

Latest RRB Study Material Pdf Download Free 

Teaching Exams Study Material Pdf Download 

 Donate Here For Free Study Materials  

Download The Hindu Daily News Paper E Paper Pdf 

EContact US  – ajitomghyan@gmail.com / admin@studydhaba.com

Note & Disclaimer – All Study Materials Here are shared Only For Educational Purposes .StudyDhaba Will Not Be Responsible . Whole Materials Is For Education Purpose Only .We Work hard to Provide You Quality Study Materials For All Competitive Exams .You can Also Share Study Materials,Notes Or Any Materials With Us .We Will Publish That Material On Our Website .It is a Humble Request To All Of You Please Share This Post With Your Friends And On Social Media .