Download UPSC Mains-2015: Geography Optional Subject Paper 1 & Paper 2

Download UPSC Mains-2015: Geography Optional Subject Paper 1 & Paper 2

Geography Mains Instructions

  1. Maximum marks: 250
  2. Duration of the exam: 3 hours
  3. There are EIGHT questions divided in TWO SECTIONS and printed both in HINDI and in ENGLISH Candidate has to attempt FIVE questions in all
  4. Questions no 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, any THREE are to be attempted
  5. choosing at least ONE from each section, The number of marks carried by a question / part is indicated against it. Answers must be written in the medium authorized In the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question cum Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided.
  6. No marks will be given for answers written in a medium other than the authorized one Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to. Illustrate your answers with suitable sketches / maps and diagrams wherever considered necessary
  7. These shall be drawn in the spat e provided for answering the question itself
  8. Attempts of questions shall be counted in sequential order Unless struck off, attempt of a equation shall be counted even if attempted partly. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the question-cum-answer booklet must be clearly stuck off.

Paper-1: Section-A

Q1. Answer the following in about 150 words each:

  1. Attempt a classification of geomorphic process from zonal point of view.
  2. Discuss as to how frontogenesis contribute to weather instability.
  3. Describe the characteristics of different types of pelagic deposits.
  4.  Explain the characteristics of ecological succession
  5. comment on the impact of environmental education on quality of life it

Q2: Answer the Following Questions

  1. Discuss the continuations of the American School of Denudation in geomorphology.
  2.  What is Potential Evapotranspiration? Explain how it is used in assessing the water balance in an area
  3. Discuss the method of conserving biodiversity for sustainable development

Q3: Answer the Following Questions

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  1. Discuss the basis of Knppen’a climatic classification. Bring out the silent characteristics of “Cs” type of climate
  2. Explain with example, as to how channel dynamic has been responsible for the development of alluvial fans and cones.
  3. Classify soils based on their zonal distribution and describe the characteristics of pedocals.

Q4: Answer the Following Questions 

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  1. Explain the different stages of ecological adaptation of man and bring out the changing balance between man and development.
  2. Present -day landforms bear more complexity than simplicity. Elucidate.
  3. Explain the meridional circulation of the atmosphere and its importance in world climate.

Paper-1: Section-B

Q5: Answer the following in about 150 words each : 10×5=50

  1. “The welfare face of geography makes it an inter-disciplinary subject. Elaborate.
  2. “Energy mix is a step towards sustainability.” Discuss.
  3. Discuss Nelson’s method of functional classification of towns.
  4. “Marx’s view on population is more humanistic.’ Comment.
  5. Development planning has a component of environmental cost. Discuss.

Q6. Answer the Following Questions

  1. “Regional synthesis is the crux of geographical studies.” Elaborate.
  2. Man-induced famines are becoming more common than nature-induced ones.” Comment.
  3. Critically examine the theories on population migration.

Q7. Answer the Following Questions

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  1. Discuss the relevance of Von Thunen’s model on agricultural on location in the contemporary context.
  2. “Cultural regions are the most suited units to study the diversity of area ” Comment.
  3. Discuss the approaches to the study of behavioural geography.

Q8. Answer the Following Questions

  1. “There is a rejuvenation of environmentalism as a paradigm in geographical studies Comment.
  2. “Geographical traits lead to regional imbalances” Examine.
  3. Vital statistics are necessary ingredients for development planning Elaborate.


Geography Question Paper-2: 

Paper-2: Section-A

  • Maximum marks: 250,
  • Duration of the exam: 3 hours. 

Q1. Answer following: 10 x 5 = 50 marks

  1. On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the locations of all the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of these locations, whether physical/ commercial/ economic/ ecological/ environmental/ cultural, in not more than 30 words for each entry : 2×5=10
    1. Tharangambadi
    2. Namcha Barwa
    3. Narcodam
    4. Khajjiar
    5. Chunchanakatte
  2. Why does the pharmaceutical industry concentrate largely in the western region of the country? (In about 150 words)
  3. Explain the pattern of winter rainfall in India. (In about 150 words)
  4. Discuss the relationship of watershed approach to village level planning (In about 150 words).
  5. How docs natural vegetation affect the formation of in situ soils? (In about 150 words)

Q2- Answer the Following Questions 

  1. Account for the geographical distribution of groundwater resources of India. How serious is its depletion in recent decades?
  2. Why is the traditional crafts industry in India on the decline?
  3. Explain how modernization of Indian agriculture is affected by unfavourable institutional factors with suitable examples.

Q3.Answer the Following Questions

  1. Distinguish between ‘agricultural productivity’ and ‘agricultural efficiency, and bring out the disparity in regional distribution of agricultural efficiency.
  2. With the help of a map, indicate the principal areas of dryland farming in the country and account for farmers’ suicides mainly in those areas.
  3. Evaluate the contribution of Communication and Information Technology to the development of economy and society, and examine the relevance of the recently launched ‘Digital India programme.

Q4. Answer the Following Questions

  1. Account for the growing frequency and intensity of floods in India, and suggest short- and long-term remedial measures indicating the chronically flood prone areas.
  2. How does climate change affect the- process of desertification of India?
  3. Discuss the scope of replication of White Revolution’ in lndia.

Paper-2: Section-B

Q5. Answer following: 10×5=50marks

  1. On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the locations of all the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of these locations, whether physical/ commercial/ economic/ ecological/ environmental/ cultural, in not more than 30 words for each entry : 2×5=10
    1. Nokrek
    2. Gorakhnath Peak
    3. Indrakiladn Peak
    4. Polavaram
    5. Ananimudi
  2. “Age-sex pyramid is representative of the history of a region.” Explain
  3. “Mono-functional towns are economically vulnerable.” Discuss.
  4. Explain how change in land use can promote eco-development at different levels in the country.
  5. Discuss the social and spatial ramifications of increasing longevity.

Q6: Answer the Following Questions

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  1. Decentralized planning through the strengthening of the Panchayat system is the focus of planning in India in recent times. Suggest a blueprint for an integrated regional development plan.
  2. In population planning, the thrust of the Government has been ‘planning the population’ not ‘plan for the population’. Elaborate.
  3. Is planning for a cluster of villages a viable option, when planning for backward areas of the country? Discuss with suitable examples.

Q7: Answer the Following Questions

  1. Reduction in regional disparities has been one of the priority goals of national planning in India. How the proposed new Smart urban centres may contribute to the process?
  2. How has India’s ‘Look East’ policy taken shape in the past two decades and how it may affect India’s external trade?
  3. Indian island territories are vulnerable to the sea level rise. Explain.

Q8: Answer the Following Questions

  1. Discuss The concept of multi-level planning as practised in India, and explain the implications of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments in this regards.
  2. Give a reasoned account of river water disputes related to the River Krishna
  3. Outline the Ghats. Government of India’s strategies of conservation of the Western Ghats.