Droughts Pdf Download -Types Of Droughts and Factors

Droughts Pdf Download -Types Of Droughts and Factors – The term ‘Drought’ in simple words is the absence of water for a long period of time, at a place where it is considered abnormal as compared to its usual conditions. The distribution of  water on the earth’s surface is not even. Some places have lots of fresh water  e.g. rivers, lakes, lagoons, ponds etc.  and they are continuously replenished by rainfall and water from underground.

If a region that has had lots of rainfall, goes for a couple of weeks without rains, and people, animals and plants begin to experience a bit of dryness, it can be called a drought. Drought can be defined as a relatively long time where there is not enough water than there usually is, as a result of dry weather, to support human, animal and plant life. Droughts become an issue only when when it begins to affect water supply for irrigation, municipal, industrial, energy, and ecosystem function. Severe droughts can have serious consequences.

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Following are the kinds of droughts:

Droughts TypesDetails 

Meteorological drought:

  • Meteorological drought is the general lack of moisture in the weather such as lack of precipitation, and the play of other weather conditions such as dry winds, high temperatures and so on.

Agricultural drought:

  • This drought happens when atmospheric moisture is reduced to an extent that soil moisture is affected. Crops and animals are affected and evapotranspiration is also affected.

Hydrological drought:

  • This is when there is a deficiency of surface water and ground water supply in a region, often as a result of less precipitation, excessive reliance on surface water for farming, energy and other needs.

Socioeconomic drought:

  • This is when some supply of some goods and services such as energy, food and drinking water are reduced or threatened by changes in meteorological and hydrological conditions. Sometimes it is even made worse by growing populations and excessive demands of such goods, to the point that it creates stress on the little water available. It takes a very long time for this kind of drought to get into full gear, and a long time to recover from it.