General introduction about india pdf – location of India-Hello Friends Welcome to . Here We are sharing Geography Notes .

location of India and General introduction about india pdf

location of India and General introduction about india pdf

Location – 

  • India is located latitudinally in Northern Hemisphere And  longitudinally in Eastern Hemisphere .
  • The country is situated north of the equator between 8°4′ and 37°6′ north latitude and 68°7′ and 97°25′ east longitude.
  •  It is the seventh-largest country in the world, with a total area of 3,166,414 square kilometres (1,222,559 sq mi).
  • India measures 3,214 km (1,997 mi) from north to south and 2,933 km (1,822 mi) from east to west.
  • It has a land frontier of 15,200 km (9,445 mi) and a coastline of 7,517 km (4,671 mi).
  • Northern most point of india is Indira col point which is in state of jammu and Kashmir .
  • southern most point of india is Indira point which is located in the great Nicobar island .
  • The indira point Previously was know as the Pygmalion Point or the parson point.
  • it is 876 km far from the equator.
  • The southern most point of india main land is kanyakumari.which is in Tamilnadu.

Shape and size of India:–

  • Shape of india is not triangular but quadrangular.
  • India measures from east to west is 2933 km and 3214km from north to south.
  • Geography Area of India : 32,87,263 sq. km.
  • Accounts for 2.4% of the total world area and roughly 16% of the world population.
  •  Mainland India has a coastline of 6,100 km.
  • Including the Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the coastline measures about 7516.6 km.

 In India, of the total land mass:

Plains Geography: 43.3%
Plateaus: 27.7%
Hills: 18.6%
Mountains Geography: 10.7%

  • In the South, on the eastern side, the Gulf of Mannar & the Palk Strait separate India from Sri Lanka.
  • Total land neighbours: 7 (Pakistan, Afghanistan,China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar).
  •  India’s Islands include the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep, Minicoy and  & Amindive Islands in the Arabian Sea
  • Gujarat has the longest coastline comparison to other states followed by Andhra Pradesh.
  • Inidas territorial sea is 12 Nautical miles from the Main coastline.India has the absolute right to use this area.
  • the area ahead of the territorial sea frontier  and 24 nautical miles from the main coastline is known as thecontiguous Zone.
  • In contiguous Zone india has got theFiscal Right, Excise duty Right , Rights related to cleanliness etc.
  • Exclusive Economic Zone –the nautical region ahead of the contiguous zone  which is 200 nautical miles from the main coastline is Known as Exclusive economic Zone.
  • In this region india has the right to survey ,exploitation ,conservation on mineral resources ,marine power ,Marine life etc.
  • The tropic of cancer passes through the middle of india .which crosses india 8 states .these states are gujarat,Rajasthan,Madhya pardesh,Chhattishgarh,Jharkhand ,west Bengal,Tripura And Mizoram.

Administrative Composition of India :-

  • There are 29 states and 7 Union Territories in India At Present.
  • Area Wise Largest states in india –

             Rajasthan> Madhya Pardesh >Maharashtra> Andhra Pardesh.

  • In Area Goa is Smallest state In India.
  • Puducherry is the only union Territory in India which is Spread Almost Three States of india .

Puducherry Main – Tamil Nadu

Karaikal – Tamil Nadu.,Yanam – Andhra Pradesh, Mahe – Kerala

Andaman and Nicobar Islands –

  • The main islands which comes under Andaman and nicobar islands are North Andaman,Middle Andaman,South Andaman,Little Andaman,Car Nicobar,Little Nicobar,Great Nicobar.
  • Port Blair the capital of Andaman And Nicobar is situated in south Andaman.
  • Barren Island oly active volcano of India is situated in The East Of Middle Andaman.
  • Andamans is a group of 204 islands of which thelargest is Middle Andaman.
  • The Andamans are believed to be extensions of mountains system in the N.E. part of the country.
  •  Saddle Peak (737 m) in N.Andaman is the highest peak.
  • The Nicobars is a group of 19 islands of which the largest is Great Nicobar.
  • Narcondam island situated in the North -Eastern part of North andaman is volcanic Island .
  • Degree channel separates Andaman from Nicobar.
  • Duncan pass between South andaman And Little Andaman.
  • coco Strait between coco island (Myanmmar) and North Andaman.
  • The Grand channel is between Great Nicobar And Sumatra (Indonesia)
  • Andaman And Nicobar Islands are also Known as the Emerald Island

Lakshadweep :-

  •  The lakashadweep is a group of island made of coral reef .
  • Minicoy is the largest island of the lakshadweep .
  • Earlier they were known as Laccadive,Minicoy and Amindive.
  • It covers small area of 32 sq km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep.
  • This island group has great diversity of flora and fauna.
  • The Pitli island, which is uninhabited, has a bird sanctuary.
  • 8 degree channel is between Minicoy and Maldives.
  • 9 Degree channel separates Minicoy from the Main archipelago Of Lakshadweep.
  • Palk strait is situated between India and Srilanka.
  • Adam Bridge si Situated between Tamil Nadu And sri Lanka.
  • Pamban Island is Part of Adam bridge .Rameshawaram is situated on this island.
  • Palk Bay is to the North of Adam Bridge and Gulf Of Mannar is situated in South of the Adam Bridge.

India Border length with Neighbouring countries:-

  • India has 15106.7 Km of land border running through 92 districts in 17 States and a coastline of  7516.6 Km touching   13 States and Union Territories (UTs).
  • India also has a total of 197 islands accounting for 2094 Km of additional coastline.
  • In fact, barring Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Delhi and Haryana, all other States in the country have one or more international borders or a coastline and can be regarded as frontline States from the point of view of border
  • The length of Indiaís land borders with neighbouring countries is as under :
    Name of the country Length of the border (in Km)
  1. Bangladesh – 4096.7 km -5 states having border
  2. china             –  3488   km  -5 states
  3. Pakistan       –   3323  km   – 4 states
  4.  Nepal             –  1751  km   –  5 states
  5. Myanmar      – 1643 km    –  4 States
  6.  Bhutan         –  699 km      – 4 States
  7. Afghanistan    –  106 km    – 1 states

General introduction about india pdf – location of India

Radcliffe Line – Border between india and pakistan and india and Bangladesh is known as Redcliffe Line.The Border between india and pakistan was decided by the sir cyril Radcliffe in 1947.since Bangladesh was part of pakistan as east pakistan thats why bangladesh border still known as the Radcliffe line.

McMohan Line – Between India And china is known as Mcmohan Line .This line was decided by the Sir Henry Mcmohan in 1914.

Durand Line – Border between india and Afghanishtan .this line is known as the durand Line .This line was decided by the Sir henry Mortimer durand in 1896.

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