GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER
GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER
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First Generation (1946-1959)
- Vacuum tubes were used for the basic component of memory and circuitry for CPU.
- Batch processing operating system, punched card, Paper Tape, Magnetic Tape Input and Output device were used.
- Machine codes and electric wired board languages were used.
- Used for scientific; later simple business system.
- Some computers of this generation were: ENIAC ; EDVAC; UNIVAC; IBM-701 ; IBM-650
Second Generation (1959-1965)
- Instead of Vacuum tubes Transistors were used.
- Magnetic cores were used as primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices.
- Main memory was 100KB.
- Assembly language and high-level programming language like FORTRAN, COBOL were used.
- Used for extensive business applications, engineering design optimization scientific research.
- Some computers of this generation were: IBM 1620; IBM 7094 ; CDC 1604 ; CDC 3600 ; UNIVAC 1108
Third Generation (1965-1971)
- Integrated circuits were used in place of transistors. A single IC has many transistors, resistors and capacitors along with the associated circuitry.
- Remote processing, Time-sharing, Real-time, Multi-programming Operating System were used.
- High-level languages FORTRAN-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, BASIC, ALGOL-68, etc were used.Used for Database management system and online systems.
- Some computers of this generation were: IBM-360 series; Honeywell-6000 series; PDP (Personal Data Processor); IBM-370/168; TDC-316.
- Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits were used .These are more powerful, compact, reliable and affordable which gave rise to personal computers.
- C, C++, DBASE etc, all these higher level languages were used in this generation.
- Concept of internet was introduced, computers became easily available.
- Some computers of this generation were: DEC 10; STAR 1000; PDP 11; CRAY-1 (Super Computer); CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer)
Fifth Generation(1980-till date)
- VLSI technology became ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology.
- In this generation AI(Artificial Intelligence) concept is introduced which is an emerging branch of Computer Science that interprets means and methods of making computers think like human beings.
- Higher level languages like C, C++, Java, .Net are used.
- Some computers types of this generation are: Desktop ; Laptop ; NoteBook ; UltraBook ; ChromeBook