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Harappa civilization Important facts Pdf for UPSC prelims 2017,SSC CGL 2017

About –Harappa civilization Important facts Pdf for UPSC prelims 2017,SSC CGL 2017

Harappa civilization Flourished during the 2500-2000 BC. Main sites include:-
  • Kalibangan (Rajasthan)
  • Dholavira (Gujarat)
  • Lothal (Gujarat)
  • Sarkotada (Gujarat)
  • Diamabad (Maharashtra)
  • Alamgirpur (U.P.)
  • Bhagwanpura(Haryana)
  • Banawali (Haryana)
  • Mauda(Jammu)

Architecture

Main features of the architecture includes:-
  • Towns in rectangular grid pattern
  • Roads cutting at right angle
  • Use of well baked burnt mud bricks
  • Use of gypsum mortar
  • Existence of granaries(with air ducts)
  • Prevalence of public baths
  • Advanced covered drainage system

Seals

Main features of seals:-
  • Shape: mostly square together with triangular, rectangular and circular
  • Material used: Steatite(most common) with agate, chert, copper, faience, ivory and gold
  • No evidence of Cow found
  • Pictographic script on seals of animals and mathematical too
  • Used for: commercial purpose, as amulets
  • Examples: Pashupati seals and unicorn seals

Sculptures

Bronze castings
  • Bronze statues were made using ‘Lost wax technique’
  • Examples are bronze dancing girl and bronze bull
Terracotta
  • Use of fire baked clay for making Terracotta sculptures
  • Generally used to make toys, animals, figures, miniature carts etc.
  • Example: mother goddess
Red sandstone
  • Red sandstone figure of a male torso has been found
Painted potteries
  • Also known as red and black pottery
  • Painting themes: trees, birds, animal figures, geometrical patterns
  • Uses: Storage of grains and water, decorative purposes
Ornaments
  • People were conscious of fashion
  • Materials used: precious metals, gemstones, bones and baked clay
  • Women ornaments: necklace, girdles, earrings and anklets
  • Fabric used: Cotton and wool
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