Important Himalayan Passes Pdf Download For UPSC,SSC

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Banihal Pass
  • Banihal Pass is a pass across the Pir Panjal Range at 2,832 m (9,291 ft) maximum elevation.
  • This mountain range separates the Kashmir valley in the Indian state Jammu and Kashmir from the outer Himalaya and plains to the south.
  • Banihal pass remains covered by heavy snow throughout the major portion of the year.
  • In Kashmiri language, “Banihāl” means blizzard.
  • The road from Jammu to Srinagar traversed Banihal pass until 1956 when Jawahar tunnel was constructed under Banihal pass.
  • The road now passes through the tunnel and the Banihal pass is no longer used for road transport.
Burzil Pass
  • The Burzil Pass is an ancient pass and caravan route between Srinagar in Kashmir and Gilgit.
  • This route was active up to Pakistan’s independence.
  • The pass lies close to the Line of Control demarcating India and Pakistan, which has since closed the Burzil.
  • The crest of the pass is wide and covered in summer with alpine grass vegetation. The Astor river originates from western slopes of the pass.
  • It is the oldest route connecting Gilgit with Srinagar and Skardu through Deosai Plateau.
  • The travellers used horses and ponies to cross the pass.
  • On the beginning of 20th century a hut of post couriers was situated on the crest of the Pass.
  • They brought mail from India to China.
Jelep la pass -Important Himalayan Passes Pdf 
  • Jelep La is a high mountain pass between India and Tibet in East Sikkim District of Sikkim.
  • The pass is in Sikkim and the route connects Lhasa to India. The pass is 46 metres (151 ft) in length.
  • The famous Menmecho Lake lies below the Jelep La Pass.
  • Jelep-la, a Tibetan name, means ‘The lovely level pass, so called because it is the easiest and most level of all the passes between Tibet and Sikkim.
Karakoram Pass
  • The Karakoram Pass is between India and China in the Karakoram Range. It is the highest pass on the ancient caravan route between Leh in Ladakh and Yarkand in the Tarim Basin.
  • ‘Karakoram’ literally means ‘Black Gravel’ in Turkic.
  • The pass is in a saddle between two mountains and about 45 metres (148 ft) wide.
  • There is no vegetation or icecap and it is generally free of snow due to the winds.
  • Temperatures are low, there are often very high winds, blizzards are frequent, and the extreme altitude took its toll.
  • In spite of all this, the Karakoram Pass was considered a relatively easy pass due to the gradual ascent on both sides, and lack of summer snow and ice much of the year. Consequently, the pass was open throughout most of the year.
  • There is no motorable road across the pass, and the pass currently remains closed to all traffic.
Kora La
  • On the Nepal-Tibet border at the upper end of Mustang.
  • Kora La is the lowest pass through both ranges between K2 and Everest, but some 300 metres (980 ft) higher than Nathula and Jelepla passes further east between Sikkim and Tibet
Mana Pass
  • Mana Pass(Māna La, Chirbitya, Chirbitya-la, or Dungri La) is a mountain pass in the Himalayas on the border between India and Tibet.
  • It appears to now be the highest vehicle-accessible pass in the world, containing a road constructed in the 2005-2010 period for the Indian military by the Border Roads Organisation.
  • The well-graded gravel-dirt road is higher on the Indian side than the new road on the Tibetan side, and rises to 5,610 metres (18,406 ft) on the Indian side of the border, 250m west of the low point of the 5,545 metres (18,192 ft) Mana Pass.
Mohan Pass
  • the principal pass in the Siwalik Hills, the southernmost and geologically youngest foothills running parallel to the main Himalayas in Sikkim.
Nathu la
  • Nathu La is a mountain pass in the Himalayas. It connects the Indian state of Sikkim with China’s Tibet Autonomous Region. The pass, at 4,310 m (14,140 ft) above mean sea level,  forms a part of an offshoot of the ancient Silk Road. Nathu means “listening ears” and La means “pass” in Tibetan.
  • On the Indian side, the pass is 54 km(34 mi) east of Gangtok, the capital of Indian state of Sikkim. Only citizens of India can visit the pass, and then only after obtaining a permit in Gangtok.
  • Nathu La is one of the three open trading border posts between China and India; the other two are Shipkila in Himachal Pradesh and Lipulekh (or Lipulech) in Uttarakhand. Sealed by India after the 1962 Sino-Indian War, Nathu La was re-opened in 2006 following numerous bilateral trade agreements. The opening of the pass was expected to bolster the economy of the region and play a key role in the growing Sino-Indian trade, but that has not happened. Currently, agreements between the two nations limit trade across the pass to 29 types of goods from India and 15 from the Chinese side. The opening, however, shortens the travel distance to important Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage sites in the region.
  • It is also one of the four officially agreed BPM (Border Personnel Meeting) points between the Indian Army and People’s Liberation Army of China for regular consultations and interactions between the two armies, which helps in defusing face-offs. The four BPM are: Chushul in Ladakh, Nathu La in Sikkim, Bum La Pass in Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh, and Lipulekh Pass in Uttarakhand close to Qiang.
Pir Panjal pass
  • The Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel or Banihal railway tunnel is an 11.215 km (7 mile) railway tunnel located in Pir Panjal Range of middle Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir, India, north of Banihal town.
  • It is India’s longest railway tunnel. It takes approximately 9 minutes and 30 seconds for the train to cross the tunnel and Asia’s third longest railway tunnel (28 km long Taihang Tunnel in China is the longest and 21 km long Lulianghsan Tunnel in Shanxi, China is the second longest).
Rohtang Pass
  • Rohtang Pass is a high mountain pass on the eastern Pir Panjal Range of the Himalayas around 51 km (32 mi) from Manali. It connects the Kullu Valley with the Lahul and Spiti Valleys of Himachal Pradesh, India. Manali-Leh Highway, a part of NH 21, transverses Rohtang Pass.
  • Rohtang literally means, ‘pile of corpses’, due to people dying in bad weather trying to cross the pass.
Shipki la Pass
  • Shipki La is a mountain pass and border post on the India-Tibet border.
  • The river Sutlej enters India (from Tibet) through this pass.
  • It is an offshoot of the ancient Silk Road.
Thorong La
  • The high point of the Annapurna Circuit, it connects the Manang District to the Mustang District in Nepal.
Zoji La Pass
  • Zoji La is a high mountain pass in Indian Kashmir, located on the Indian National Highway 1D between Srinagar and Leh in the western section of the Himalayan mountain range. Though often referred to as Zojila Pass in the foreign press, the correct English translation is Zoji Pass or simply Zojila, since the suffix ‘La’ itself means pass in several Himalayan languages. The usage of the word “La” can also be seen in the Khardung La, Fotu La, Namika La and Pensi La etc.
  • Zoji La is 9 km (5.6 mi) from Sonamarg and provides a vital link between Ladakh and Kashmir. It runs at an elevation of approximately 3,528 metres (11,575 ft), and is the second highest pass after Fotu La on the Srinagar-Leh National Highway. It is often closed during winter, though the Border Roads Organisation (BRO) is working to extend traffic to most parts of the year. The Beacon Force unit of the BRO is responsible for clearing and maintenance of the road during Winter.
  • During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, Zoji La was seized by Pakistani raiders in 1948 in their campaign to capture Ladakh. The pass was captured by Indian forces on 1 November in a daring assault codenamed Operation Bison, which achieved success primarily due to the surprise use of tanks, then the highest altitude at which tanks had operated in combat in the world.