India Based Neutrino Observatory INO UPSC Mind Map [Burning Topic ] – This is The Latest topic From Our team Studydhaba. In this Post We Will be Discussing About INO and Its Significance For India And World , Environment Issue Which Was Related With This Observatory .
- India Based Neutrino Observatory
- Location of Observatory
- Environment Problem Associated With This Project
- Nodal Agency Or department Which will Handle this Observatory
- What are Neutrinos ?
- Importance Of Neutrinos
- Challenges For Observatory
Why This Issue Or Topic in News Recent Time ?
- Approval has been granted by the Union cabinet for setting up of a Neutrino Observatory for studying fundamental particles called the neutrinos.
- The location of the Observatory would be in the Bodi West Hills region of Theni district, about 110 kilometres west of Madurai in Tamil Nadu.
- The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has taken it up as a special case and granted it environmental clearance to set up the lab in Bodi West Hills
What are neutrinos?
- Neutrinos are electrically neutral, elementary weakly interacting subatomic particles with half-integer spin. They belong to the lepton family.
- Neutrinos were first proposed by Swiss scientist Wolfgang Pauli, are the second most widely occurring particle in the universe, only second to photons, the particle which makes up light.
- Neutrinos are similar to the more familiar electron, with one crucial difference: neutrinos do not carry electric charge.
- Because neutrinos are electrically neutral, they are not affected by the electromagnetic forces which act on electrons.
Some Features Of Neutrinos Are Following
- They are light.
- They have little mass or are nearly massless.
- They are no-charge particles that only interact with weak nuclear force.
There are three types of neutrinos:
- “Electron neutrino” is associated with the electron
- “Muon neutrino”
- “Tau neutrino”
Nobel Prize For Neutrino Discovery in 2015
- In 2015, the Nobel prize in physics was awarded to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. Mcdonald for discovering neutrino oscillations demonstrating that neutrinos have mass.
- Neutrinos are the least harmful of all elementary particles, as they almost never react with solid bodies.
- The mass of a neutron is 1.67×10-27 kg while the mass of a neutrino is of the order of 1×10-37kg. Hence, a neutrino is about 17 billion times lighter than a neutron. The two are incomparable.
Why study neutrinos Or What Are The Importance of Studying Neutrinos
- To detect mineral and oil deposits deep in the earth
- Improve telecom and internet services
- Nuclear non-proliferation
- What Makes Up The universe ?
- Probing Early Universe.
- Properties of Sun – Help In Understanding Interior Of Sun.
India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO)
- Peak near Theni, Tamil Nadu, India
- Located In Deep Cave Under 4300 ft
- It is Mainly Particle physics research project – Study Neutrino
- The initial goal of INO is to study neutrinos
- Neutrinos are fundamental particles belonging to the lepton family.
- They come in three flavors, one associated with electrons and the others with their heavier cousins the muon and the Tau
Why does INO need the mountain?
- The mountain consists of 1km of solid rock that filters away most of the charged particles from the cosmic rays.
- The filtered set consists of a part of the incident cosmic ray protons and pions and practically all the neutrinos.
Why does the experiment have to be underground?
- If the detector was placed at the surface of the mountain, it would pick up billions of cosmic ray muons every hour and about 10 neutrino events per day.
- After placing inside the rock, it would detect only 300 muon events per hour and about 10 neutrino events per day of which 3 will be the desired muon neutrino events.
Who else has a neutrino facility?
- Underground: SNO, Canada, Kamioka in Japan and Gran Sasso, Italy.
- Underwater: Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. Antares – under the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Toulon, France.
Why are the locals opposing it?
- Locals fear that the excavation and blasts needed to bore the tunnel in the mountains will endanger the biodiversity of the Western Ghats.
- Some of the concerns voiced range from radiation, structural damage to the mountain to emission of hazardous chemicals.