Jallikattu Pdf -Politics of Jallikattu – Pride Of tamilnadu
Jallikattu Pdf Short Notes With Full Analysis For UPSC prelims and Mains 2017 –Jallikattu is a bull’s game day event happening in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations. Bulls are bred specifically by some private rich persons of the village& temples for the event.
What is the history of Jallikattu?
- Jalikattu is believed to have been practiced since at least 2500 years.
- A seal from Indus Valley civilization depicting the practice is preserved in the National Museum, New Delhi.
- A cave painting that depicts a man trying to tame a bull is estimated to be 2500 years old by the Archaeologists.
- There are references to people enjoying witnessing and participating in Jalikattu in Silappatikaram one of the 5 great epics of Tamil classical period and 2 other ancient literary works like Kalithogai and Malaipadukadaam.
- Bullfighting was common among the ancient tribes who lived in the ‘Mullai’ geographical division of the ancient Tamil country.
- Later, it became a platform for display of bravery and prize money was introduced for entertainment.
- The event often results in major injuries and deaths with over 200 deaths over the past two decades.
- Animal activists, the FIAPO (Federation of India Animal Protection Agencies) and PETA India have protested against the practice over the years.
- The Animal Welfare Board of India has filed a case in the Supreme Court of India for an outright ban on Jallikattu because of the cruelty to animals and the threat to public safety involved.
- Protestors point out that Jallikattu is promoted as bull taming, but that there is no ‘taming’ involved at all. Jallikattu exploits the bulls’ natural nervousness as prey animals by deliberately placing them in a terrifying situation in which they are forced to run away from those they perceive as predators. The practice effectively involves catching a terrified animal, not taming it.
- In May 2014, the Supreme Court of India banned the practice, citing animal welfare issues. Recently the Government of India has passed an order exempting Jallikattu from all performances where bulls cannot be used, effectively reversing the ban.
- However, the Supreme Court of India upheld its ban on the event, leading to protests all over Tamil Nadu.
Why PETA and other animal rights activists want to ban Jallikattu?
Animal Welfare Board: The Animal Welfare Board of India is a statutory advisory body on Animal Welfare Laws and promotes animal welfare in the country. From ensuring that animal welfare laws in the country are diligently followed, to provide grants to Animal Welfare Organizations and advising the Government of India on animal welfare issues, the Board has been the face of the animal welfare movement in the country since 1962.The Board consists of 28 Members. The term of office of Members is for a period of 3 years.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals: PETA is the largest animal rights organization in the world, with more than 5 million members and supporters. PETA India focuses primarily on the areas in which the greatest numbers of animals suffer the most: in the food and leather industries, in laboratories and in the entertainment industry. PETA India’s investigative work, public education efforts, research, animal rescues, legislative work, special events, celebrity involvement and national media coverage have resulted in countless improvements to the quality of life for animals and have saved countless animals’ lives.
Federation of India Animal Protection Agencies: FIAPO’s main aim is to help connect up, and inform, animal protection organizations and activists across India. The aim is to strengthen animal protection by strengthening organizations themselves; not to become an “alternative” to existing organizations but on the contrary, to be an expression of their strength and an amalgam of their collective expertise and passion.
Why the sudden outrage? -Jallikattu Pdf -Politics of Jallikattu – Pride Of tamilnadu
- Last year, the Environment Ministry amended its earlier notification, initially issued by UPA in 2011, and declared that the sport could carry on irrespective of the imposed ban. This was seen in direct contravention with the Supreme Court’s order and was challenged by organisations such as People for The Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Consequently, a stay order was issued by the court.
- A research conducted by PETA’s investigators found that the bulls were being disoriented, deliberately. The bulls’ tails were allegedly bitten and twisted; stabbed, punched and dragged on the ground. PETA’s campign was vocally supported by celebrities like John Abraham and Hema Malini, who played an integral role in standing for the ban against Jallikattu.
Why is PETA keen on banning Jallikattu? -Jallikattu Pdf
- In January 2016, the Central Government lifted the ban on request of Tamil Nadu Government. This notification was challenged by PETA and Other such welfare Organizations in the Supreme Court. PETA insists that ‘cruelty’ is not limited to slaughter but includes unnecessary suffering and torture induced on animals for the purpose of human entertainment.
- Therefore, PETA advocates that it is the fundamental duty of citizens of India to have compassion for all living creatures and to protect wildlife.
Why are Tamilians protesting the ban on Jallikattu?
- They consider it symbolic of Tamilian pride as it is an ancient tradition that has been carried on for years. Jallikattu witnesses thousands of participants, attempting to tame the bulls by latching to their horns or humps.
- Its innumerable references could be found in Dravidian Literature and the indigenous population of Tamilnadu has held this event for years.
- The Jallikattu protests are fuelled by the view that the ban impinges on the cultural identity of the populace.
- Film fraternity members are scheduled to fast in support of jallikattu while the the Trade association says markets shall remain closed tomorrow.
Judgments on Jallikattu pdf
- In 1991, the Environment Ministry had banned the training and exhibition of bears, monkeys, tigers, panthers and dogs. This was challenged by the Indian Circus organisation in the Delhi High Court but the court upheld the notification.
- The ban on Jallikattu itself has existed on and off since 2006.
- In 2006, the Madras High Court banned it after the death of a young spectator.
- In 2009, the ban was subsequently lifted with the Tamil Nadu Regulation of Jallikattu Act, 2009.
- In 2011, the Environment Ministry at the Center issued a notification especially mentioning ‘bulls’.
- But even after the 2011 notice, the Jallikattu practice continued to be held because under the Tamil Nadu Regulation Act No. 27 of 2009.
- After it was found that the regulations were not being followed and that bulls were indeed being subjected to cruelty as defined under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) filed a petition.
- In 2014, the Supreme Court banned Jallikattu and struck down the 2009 act.
- In January 2016, in what could be seen as a clearly political move, the union environment ministry revoked the ban by issuing a notification months before the elections in Tamil Nadu were due to be held.
- In January 2016, Supreme Court stayed this 2016 Union Government notification, as it was challenged by the AWBI and PETA. The case is still being heard and so far the Court has not delivered its final verdict.
- On 8 January 2017, several hundreds of protesters conducted a rally at Chennai Marina opposing the ban on Jallikattu. The participants walked from the lighthouse to the labour statue bearing posters saying ‘save Jallikattu’. Following the protests at Chennai, many students started rallies in various towns of Tamil Nadu. Numerous illegal Jallikattu events were held across Tamil Nadu in protest of the ban, and hundreds of participants were detained by police in response.
- Due to these protests, on 21 January 2017, the Governor of Tamil Nadu issued a new ordinance that authorized the continuation of jallikattu events. The ordinance is a ‘State amendment’ to the Central Act – Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (1960). This means that in its application to Tamil Nadu, some provisions will be different from what they are for the rest of the country. PCA falls under Entry 17 (Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) in the Concurrent List of the Constitution. This means both the Centre and the States have concurrent power to enact laws on the subject.
- On 23 January 2017, the Tamil Nadu legislature passed a bi-partisan bill, with the accent of Indian President, exempting jallikattu from the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (1960). But Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Tamil Nadu Amendment) Act of 2017 is not much different from the state law overturned by Supreme Court in 2009.
Jallikattu Pdf Short Notes With Full Analysis For UPSC prelims and Mains 2017-Jallikattu Pdf -Politics of Jallikattu – Pride Of tamilnadu