LIST OF IMPORTANT ZOOLOGY TERMS AND DEFINITION

LIST OF IMPORTANT ZOOLOGY TERMS AND DEFINITION

To Download This File Click On The Download- Download Now 
Download Free Study Material IBPS

LIST OF IMPORTANT ZOOLOGY TERMS AND DEFINITION

  • Actin: It is one of the two proteins in the muscles.
  • Adrenal gland: It is the pair of important glands present by the side of the kidneys in higher animals.
  • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: AIDS is a disease caused by a virus which inactivates the immune system in the body.
  • Albinism: It is a condition in which the normal skin colour is absent. It is caused by reduction or total lack of the pigment Melanin.
  • Albumin: It is one of a group of simple water soluble globular proteins present widely in milk.
  • Alimentary canal: It is a tube in multicellular animals through which food is taken into the body, digested and absorbed by the cells.
  • Allergy: It is hypersensitivity.
  • Amoeba: It is a unicellular fresh water organism, it is a simple Protozoan and has no definite shape.
  • Amphibia: It is the class of back-boned land-animals like frogs, toads, newts and salamander. They are the first vertebrates that colonized land and can stay in water as well as on land.
  • Anaemia: It is a condition marked by low hemoglobin content of the blood.
  • Androgen: It is a class of male sex hormones chiefly produced in the testis.
  • Anthropology: It is the study of human species in all its aspects including evolution, culture and population dynamics.
  • Antibodies: It is a group of specific Proteins produced by mammals to defend themselves from foreign organisms or chemicals.
  • Anticoagulant: It is a chemical that can prevent blood from clotting for example heparin.
  • Antiemetic: It is a substance which inhibits vomiting.
  • Antigen: It is a foreign substance, usually proteins in nature, which elicits the formation of specific antibodies within an organism.
  • Annelida: It is a group of invertebrates like earthworms, which have long, cylindrical, segmented bodies.
  • Aorta: It is the main artery leading out of heart carrying oxygenated blood.
  • Appendicitis: It is the inflammation of the appendix.
  • Arboreal: These are the organisms that spend most or all of their lives among the branches of trees.
  • Artery: It is the blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart.
  • Arthritis: It is the painful inflammation of bone joints.
  • Autograft: It is grafting of one tissue to another tissue of the same organisms.
  • Bacteria: It is a class of extremely small relatively simple micro-organism.
  • Bile: It is a secretion the liver in animals. It is an alkaline fluid that helps in digestion and absorption of fats.
  • Blood Clotting: It is the solidification of blood.
  • Blood pressure: It is the pressure exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels, especially the main arteries. It is due to the pumping action of the heart.
  • Capillary: The smallest tubes or vessels which form the connecting link between the circulatory and lymphatic system. Usually the walls are single layer thick.
  • Carbohydrate:  It is a group of organic compounds like sugars, starches and cellulose composed entirely of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. They form the main source of energy for the human body.
  • Carcinogen: Any substance or agent capable of causing cancer.
  • Carnivorous: It is a mode of living by which animals and plants survive by eating the flesh of other animals.
  • Chromosome: It is a complex thread-like structure seen in plant and animal cells at the time of cell division. They are the carriers of the genetic material DNA.
  • Chyme: It is the partially digested food after leaving the stomach.
  • Circumcision: It is the surgical removal or excision of the foreskin covering the male or female genital organs.
  • Cirrhosis: It is a progressively inflammation disease of the live in which the liver cells are destroyed.
  • Clone: It is parthenogenetic or asexual descendants from a single individual, all having the same genetic constitution.
  • Colon: It is a portion of the large intestine of humans extending from the caecum to the rectum. The inflammation of the colon in humans is called colitis.
  • Contagious disease: It is an infectious disease communicable by contact with one suffering from it, with his bodily discharges, or with an object touched by him for example, cholera and chicken pox.
  • Convulsion: It is a violet, uncontrolled muscle spasm, or a series of them, sometimes repeated rapidly and accompanied by unconsciousness.
  • Cretin: Victim of severe congenital thyroid deficiency, causing physical and mental retardation.
  • Eczyma: It is a non-specific term used to denote skin disorders characterized by redness, thickening, oozing blisters and occasional formation of fissures and cracks.
  • Elephantiasis: It is a diseased state which constitutes one of the manifestations of filariasis.
  • Embryo: It is a developing fertilized egg during the early project. An unborn human being is called an embryo for the first two months of its period of development in the womb.
  • Encephalitis: It is inflammation of the brain.
  • Endocrine glands: These are ductless glands which produce hormones which pass directly into the blood.
  • Endocrinology: It is the study of endocrine glands and their products.
  • Endoscope: It is a tubular instrument which has a light source and a viewing optical system. This may be inserted into the organs.
  • Enterovirus: It is a group of viruses that enter the body via the alimentary tract and tend to invade the central nervous system.
  • Entomology: It is the study of insects.
  • Epidemic: the term is used to describe a disease which spread quickly to affect a large proportion of the population.
  • Epilepsy: It is recurrent disorder of the brain function characterized by clouding of convulsions due to an abnormal discharge of nerve impulses in the brain.
  • Ergonomics: It is the study relating to efficient use of human energy.
  • Estrogen: It is any of a group of steroid hormones containing 18 carbon atoms produced chiefly by the ovary and placenta but also by the testis and adrenal gland of all vertebrates.
  • Ethnology: It is the science dealing with the various races of mankind, their distribution, relationship, culture and activities.
  • Eugenics: It is the science dealing with the selective genetic improvement of the human race.
  • Euthanasia: It is painless killing of a person or animal suffering from an incurable disease.
  • Expectorants: The drugs which promote or increase the elimination of secretion from the respiratory tract by coughing.
  • Filariasis: It is an infestation with parasitic thread-like worms.
  • Foetus: It is a mammalian embryo on its late stages when the main features are clearly recognizable.
  • Gall bladder: It is a small pouch-like organ that stores bile secreted from liver. Most vertebrates have gall bladders.
  • Gall stone: It is an insoluble deposit precipitated from the bile, when bile stagnates in the gall bladder, it becomes excessively concentrated and gall stones form.
  • Gangrene: It is death of body tissues from lack of oxygen caused by a loss of blood supply to those areas of the body, often hands of feet.
  • Gene: It is the basic unit of inheritance. A gene is a short length of a chromosome made of DNA which influences a particular set of characters in a particular way.
  • Genetic code: It is a sequence of bases along the DNA molecule.
  • Genetic engineering: It is a technique of altering the genetic makeup of an organism to suit a specific purpose.
  • Genetics: It is the scientific study of heredity, that is, the passing on of characteristics from parents to their offspring.
  • Genome: It is the complete set of chromosomes found in each nucleus of a given species, which contains the entire genetic material.
  • Gerontology: It is the scientific study of again.
  • Gestation period: It is the period during which an embryo develops in the uterus of a mammal, from the time, of conception to birth.
  • Gland: It is an organ which secretes specific chemical compounds such as enzymes or hormones.
  • Glaucoma: It is an eye disease characterized by increased pressure of the fluid with in the eye.
  • Goitre: It is an enlargement of all of part of the thyroid gland, which appears as a smooth swelling at the front of the neck. Goitre generally occurs due to iodine deficiency.
  • Gonad: It is the organs which produces gametes in animals and in some produce hormones too. The female gonad is called ovary and male gonad is called testis.
  • Gout: It is a chronic disease that can produce severe swelling of the joints.
  • Gynaecology: It is the branch of medical science dealing with diseases of women, particularly those affecting reproductive organs.
  • Haematology: It is the science dealing with the formation, composition, functions and disease of blood.
  • Haemoglobin: It is the iron-containing, red, respiratory pigment of vertebrates and a few invertebrates that transports oxygen.
  • Haemophilia: It is an inherited disease in which the blood fails to clot.
  • Hay fever: It is a form of allergy that affects the nose and throat due to sensitively to certain plant pollens.
  • Heat stroke: A condition caused by overexposure to the sun.
  • Hapatitis: It is a cute or chronic viral inflammation of the liver.
  • Herbivore: It is a plant eating organism.
  • Herpes: It is a group of closely related viruses that cause various diseases which included herpes simplex, herpes zoster and chicken pox.
  • Hibernation: It is a condition of dormancy in animals to protect themselves against cold and study food scarcity during winter.
  • Histology: It is the biological science that deals with the study of structure of tissues.
  • Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV): It is a virus that causes AIDS.
  • Homo sapiens: It is the term in Greek means ‘wise man’ and refers to the genus and species to which all modern human beings belong.
  • Homograft: It is a tissue or organ which is transplanted from one individual to another of the same species.
  • Hormone: It is a chemical messenger produced by endocrine glands in animals and secreted directly into the bloodstream.
  • Hybrid: It is the offspring of parents of different races, varieties or species.
  • Hymen: It is a fold of mucous membrane which normally partially covers the entrance to the vagina.
  • Hypersensitivity: It is an exaggerated reaction of the body’s defence system to basically harmless substances which may have been inhaled, eaten, drunk, injected or just been in contact with the skin.
  • Hypnosis: It is a temporary condition of altered attention in an individual.
  • Hysteria: It is a psychological disorder, in which a person has physical complaints when no physical cause can be found.
  • Id: It is a part of human personality that relates to the primitive instinct of the body, notably sex and aggression.
  • Immunity: It is an inbuilt defence mechanism by which vertebrates can resist infection caused by parasitic microorganisms or their products.
  • Inbreeding: It is reproduction by the mating of closely related individuals.
  • Incubation: It is the act of providing proper physical conditions for the development of the young ones of certain organisms. Commonly it is the hatching of eggs by means of heat natural or artificial.
  • Incubation period: It is the interval between exposure to a disease and its appearance.
  • Insemination: It is the introduction of semen or spermatozoa into the female genital tract.
  • Insulin: It is a protein. Hormone produced by the Islets of Langerhans, a part of the endocrine gland pancreas.
  • Invertebrate: It is a collective terms for all animals which do not have a backbone or vertebral column.
  • Jaundice: It is a condition characterised by yellowness of the skin, whites of eyes, mucous membranes and body fluids.
  • Keratitis: It is any inflammation involving the cornea of the eyes.
  • Lactation: It is the process by which milk secretion in the breasts is initiated and maintained and milk is delivered to the suckling infant.
  • Leukemia: It is a kind of cancer in which certain white blood cells grow in an uncontrollable manner.
  • Lipid: It is one of a large group of oily or fatty substances essential for good health.
  • Mammal: It is an animal.
  • Mastectomy: It is surgical removal of the breast. Usually carried out in the case of patients suffering from breast cancer.
  • Melanin: It is a polymeric pigment responsible for colouring of eyes, skin and hair. Melanins are produced by epidermal cells called melanocytes.
  • Membrane: It is a sheetlike tissue covering biological cells.
  • Meningitis: It is an inflammation of the protective tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is characterised by high fever, severe headache, aversion to strong light and neck stiffness.
  • Metamorphosis: It describes a change in an animal.
  • Motor nerve: It is nerve which conveys an impulse directly to a muscle and causes it to contract.
  • Muscular dystrophy: It is a hereditary disease which progressively damages muscle fibres and eventually destroys them.
  • Necrosis: These are changes in the tissue brought about by the local death of cells.
  • Nematode: It is a class of elongated roundworms.
  • Neuron: It is an elongated greyish or reddish cell that is the basic functional unit of the nervous system.
  • Neurosis: It is emotional disturbance that adversely affects thinking and judgement. A person suffering from neurosis shows constant anxiety about something or other.
  • Nocturnal: It is active at night e.g. bats.
  • Obesity: It is overweight of the body due to excessive accumulates in body tissues causing overall swelling.
  • Odontology: It is a branch of science dealing with the study of teeth.
  • Oedema: It is a condition in which excess of fluid accumulates in body tissues causing overall swelling.
  • Oedipus complex: It is an abnormal both plant and animal material.
  • Omnivore: It is an organism that can eat both plant and animal material.
  • Orgasm: It is a state of highly emotional excitement that occurs at the climax of sexual intercourse.
  • Ornithology: It is the branch of zoology dealing with the study of life or birds, including their identification and behavioural patterns.
  • Oral Rehydration Solution: It is prepared by dissolving a pinch of salt and a little sugar in a glass of clean water.
  • Orthopaedics: It is the branch of surgery dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of injuries, deformities and diseases of bones, joints ligaments and muscles.
  • Ossification: It is the process of bone formation.
  • Osteoporosis: It is a condition in which bones become thin and brittle due to loss of calcium.
  • Ovary: It is an oval-shaped female sex gland that produces the ova, or egg cells and secreted hormones like oestrogen and progesterone.
  • Ovulation: It is the release of a mature egg from the ovary during the menstrual cycle.
  • Pancreas: It is a tongue-shaped organ that lies behind the stomach and produces two types of secretions.
  • Paralysis: Any condition in which the ability to control the movement of a limb or a muscles is lost.
  • Pasteurization: It is a technique of making milk safe for drinking by killing off any disease-causing bacteria present in it.
  • Pathogen: Any micro-organism that causes disease.
  • Pathology: It is the scientific study of the changes in tissue or body organs brought about by a disease or a physiological disorder.  It is now used for diagnostic purposes.
  • Pharynx: It is the cavity between the back of the mouth and the wind-pipe or food role in speech production.
  • Phobia: It is a form an anxiety or irrational and intense fear triggered off by a specific, often harmless, situation or object.
  • Pituitary gland: It is a pea-sized endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain below the hypothalamus by a short stalk. It is one of the most important glands of the body and secretes a number of important hormones which influence the activity of several other endocrine glands such as the adrenals and the thyroid.
  • Plasma: It is the liquid part of body fluids such as lymph and blood. Blood plasma is a straw coloured fluid containing proteins and inorganic materials.
  • Platelet: It is a tiny, disc-shaped body present in blood which plays an important role in blood clotting.
  • Puberty: It is the period of life when the gonads become functional i.e. an individuals becomes sexually mature.
  • Prostrate gland: It is a gland of the male reproductive system of mammals. It secretes a fluid into the semen that activates the sperms and prevents them from clumping together.
  • Protoplasm: It is the living material within a cell including the Mitochondria, ribosomes and chromosomes.
  • Protozoa: It is a group of single celled organisms ranging from the heart to the lungs. It is the only artery that carries oxygen depleted blood.
  • Pulmonary artery: It is the blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood form the heart to the lungs. It is the only artery that carries oxygen depleted blood.
  • Pulmonary vein: It is the blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood form lungs to the heart. It is the only vein in the body that carries oxygenated blood.
  • Ruminants: These are grazing mammals that chew cud and have split hoofs, for example, ox, sheep, cow, camel and goat.
  • Scabies: It is a contagious skin disease caused by a microscopic mite Sarcoptes  scabiei.
  • Schizophrenia: It is a severe mental disease characterised by unpredictable disturbances in thinking where the individual withdraws from reality and begins thinking in illogical and confused patters.
  • Scurvy: It is a disease caused by lack of vitamins C in the diet. The symptoms include slow healing of wounds, mouth and gums become sore.
  • Senescence: It is the process of growing old; the period of old age.
  • Serum: It is liquid portion that remains after blood clots, and the blood cells and clotting elements are removed by centrifugation.
  • Sex chromosomes: It is one of a pair of chromosomes or one of several chromosomes that determine the genetic gender of its bearer. In humans the gender determining chromosomes are x and y chromosomes.
  • Sillicosis: It is a lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust.
  • Spinal cord: It is that portion of the central nervous system behind or below the brain and beyond the confines of the skull.
  • Sterile: It is a word which describes something that is completely free from bacteria and other micro-organisms.
  • Thrombosis: It is the formation of a solid mass of blood, often called “clot” or “thrombus”, in a blood vessel, which leads to partial or complete blockage of blood circulation in the area.
  • Thyroid: It is the ductless gland found on both sides of the windpipe, It secretes the hormone thyroxine, a compound of iodine and tyrosine which controls the rate of metabolism in the body affecting its growth and activity.
  • Tonsils: These are two small glands, about the shape and size of an almond at either side of the back of the mouth. They are lymphoid tissues which protect the body from infections by filtering out germs. They also aid in the production of white blood cells.
  • Toxicology: It is the scientific study of poisons. It also deals with the technology required for their study, detection and counteraction.
  • Transfusion: It is the transfer of blood or plasma from one individual to another.
  • Tuberculosis: It is commonly known as T.B., It is an infectious, inflammatory and contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Tumour: It is an uncontrolled growth of cells resulting in a large mass.
  • Typhoid: It is an infectious gastrointestinal disease that causes fever. It often spreads by contamination of food, milk or water with Salmonella typhi bacteria.
  • Umbilical cord: It is a connective cord that links the unborn infant or foetus with the mother.
  • Uterus: Hollow organs of the female reproductive system in which an unborn baby develops. It is located near the base of the abdomen.
  • Vasectomy: It is a surgical operation for closing up of vas deferens, the tube which carries sperms from the testis to the prostate gland from where they are carried outside alongwith other secretions.
  • Vector: It is an agent which carries infectious organisms from an infected individual to another.
  • Vein: It is a blood vessel which carries blood form different parts of the body to the heart. All veins except the pulmonary veins pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from lungs to the heart.
  • Vertebrate: Any animal having a backbone or vertebral column.
  • Vestigeal organs: It is a small imperfectly developed organ which may have lost of changed its function in the course of evolution e.g. vermiform appendix of man.
  • Virus: It is an extremely small obligate parasite which can multiply only in a living cell of a plant or an animal.
  • Vitamins: These are organic compound that are essential but required in small quantities for the normal growth and proper nourishment of the body.
  • X-chromosome: It is one of the sex determining chromosomes. In humans it is this chromosome that carries the genes for maleness. A human only when it carries an XY chromosomal set up.
  • Yeast: It is a collective name for unicellular fungi.
  • Zygote: It is the fusion product of an egg and a male gamete (sperm), i.e. a fertilized egg or ovum.