NCERT Biology Notes Pdf Vitamins ,Protein,Fat ,carbohydrates

NCERT Biology Notes Pdf Vitamins ,Protein,Fat ,carbohydrates .

  • Vitamin was first discovered by F.G. Hopkins but the term ‘vitamin’ was coined by Casimir Funk.
  • Vitamin F is obsolete.
  • Vitamin G is another name for Vitamin B2.
  • Vitamin B complex was formerly regarded as single vitamin.

NCERT Biology Notes Pdf Vitamins ,Protein,Fat ,carbohydrates

NCERT Biology Notes Pdf Vitamins ,Protein,Fat ,carbohydrates .

Golden rice – variety of rice (Oryza sativa) produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesize beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, in the edible parts of rice. In 2005, a new variety called Golden Rice 2, which produces up to 23 times more beta-carotene than the original golden rice, was announced. Although golden rice was developed as a humanitarian tool, it has met with significant opposition from environmental and anti-globalization activists.

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VitaminsDetails
Vitamins -NCERT Biology Notes Pdf Vitamins 
  • Organic compounds which are essential for normal growth and nutrition and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body.
TypesThere are 13 vitamins A, C, D, E, K, B12, and 7 grouped under the vitamin B complex. Human body can synthesize vitamin B(niacin) and vitamin D on their own. Vitamins are categorized into two groups;

  1. Fat soluble Vitamins – A, D, E and K. Lipids such as triglycerides contain these vitamins, which are absorbed from the intestine into the bloodstream and then stored in fatty tissue such as liver
  2. Water soluble Vitamins – Vitamin C, B complex and B 12. only small amounts of Vitamin C and B complex are stored by the body and hence, regular intake of these vitamins is necessary
Vitamin A
  • Functions: normal growth, formation of bones and teeth, maintenance of night vision, and protecting the linings of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts against infection.
  • Vitamin A is absorbed by the body in the form of retinol. Carotene, the precursor of retinol, is found in various vegetables(carrots) and fruits.
  • Dietary sources: liver, fish-liver oils, egg yolk and dairy products.
  • Deficiency diseases: Night blindness, Xerophthalmia, Keratomalacia, and complete blindness.
  • Excessive intake leads to loss of appetite, reduced resistance to infection, skin peeling, stunted growth, hair loss and irregular menstruation.
  • Excessive intake during pregnancy may cause birth defects.
  • In infants, excessive intake may cause skull deformities, which disappear if the diet is corrected.
Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)
  • Functions: production of the genetic material, production of red blood cells in bone marrow, utilization of folic acid and carbohydrates in the diet, and functioning of the nervous system.
  • Dietary sources: liver, kidney, chicken, pork, fish, eggs, and dairy products.
  • Deficiency diseases: Megaloblastic anaemia, sore mouth and tongue, numbness and tingling in the limbs, depression and memory loss.
  • High intake of vitamin B12 has no known harmful effects.
Vitamin B complex1. Thiamine(vitamin B1)(Aneurin)

  • Functions: Essential for various enzymes involved in the utilization of carbohydrates, functioning of nerves, muscles, and the heart.
  • Dietary sources: whole-grain cereals, wholemeal breads, brown rice, pasta, liver, kidney, pork, fish, beans, nuts, and eggs. Mild deficiency results in tiredness, irritability, and loss of appetite.
  • Severe deficiency causes abdominal pain, constipation, depression, memory impairment, and beriberi.
  • In alcoholics, it causes Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, which leads to loss of memory for recent events although long term memory is intact.
  • Vitamin B1 is lost in polished rice.

2. Riboflavin(vitamin B2)

  • Functions: necessary for enzymes involved in the breakdown and utilization of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; the production of energy in cells; the utilization of other B vitamins; and hormone production by the adrenal glands.
  • Dietary sources: Liver, whole grains, milk, eggs, and brewer’s yeast. Deficiency disorders: soreness in and around tongue and mouth, eye disorders such as amblyopia and photophobia.

3. Niacin(Nicotinic acid)

  • Functions: needed by enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, the functioning of the nervous and digestive systems, the manufacture of sex hormones, and the maintenance of healthy skin.
  • Dietary sources: liver, lean meat, fish, nuts, and dried beans.
  • Deficiency disorders: Pellagra – causes gastrointestinal disturbances and erythema, dermatitis, diarrhoea, and nervous or mental disorders. Pellagra is often linked to over-dependence on maize as a staple food.

4. Pantothenic acid

  • Functions: essential for the enzymes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, manufacture of corticosteroids and sex hormones, utilization of other vitamins, functioning of the nervous system and adrenal glands, and growth and development. Dietary sources: vegetables, cereals, and animal foods. Deficiency leads to fatigue, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, numbness and tingling, muscle cramps, and susceptibility to respiratory infections. Prolonged deficiency leads to peptic ulcer.

5. Pyridoxine(vitamin B6)

  • Functions: needed by enzymes and hormones involved in the utilization of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, manufacture of red blood cells and antibodies, functioning of the digestive and nervous systems, and maintenance of healthy skin.
  • Dietary sources: liver, chicken, pork, fish, whole grains, wheat germ, bananas, potatoes, and dried beans. Pyridoxine is also synthesised by intestinal bacteria. Deficiency may cause weakness, irritability, depression, skin disorders, inflammation of the mouth and tongue, anaemia, and, in infants, seizures. In very large amounts, pyridoxine may cause neuritis.

6. Biotin(vitamin H)

  • Functions: essential for enzymes involved in the breakdown of fatty acids and carbohydrates and for the excretion of the waste products of protein breakdown.
  • Dietary sources: liver, peanuts, dried beans, egg yolk, mushrooms, bananas, grapefruit, and watermelon. Biotin is also synthesised by intestinal bacteria. Deficiency causes weakness, tiredness, poor appetite, hair loss, depression, inflammation of the tongue, enteritis and eczema.

7. Folic acid

  • Functions: necessary for enzymes involved in the manufacture of nucleic acids and consequently for growth and reproduction, production of red blood cells, and functioning of the nervous system.
  • Dietary sources: green vegetables, mushrooms, liver, nuts, dried beans, peas, egg yolk, and wholemeal bread.
  • Deficiency disorders: anaemia, sores around the mouth, and, in children, poor growth. Severe deficiency may occur during pregnancy or breastfeeding
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid

NCERT Biology Notes Pdf Vitamins ,Protein,Fat ,carbohydrates

  • Functions: growth and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, gums, ligaments, and blood vessels; production of certain neurotransmitters and adrenal gland hormones; immunity against infection and wound healing and absorption of iron.
  • Dietary sources: citrus fruits and vegetables. Mild deficiency leads to weakness, general aches, swollen gums, and nosebleeds. Serious deficiency leads to scurvy and anaemia.
  • Excessive consumption forms kidney stones(calculi). Vitamin C is lost when foods are processed, cooked, or kept warm.
Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D2 – Calciferol
  • Vitamin D3 – Cholecalciferol
  • Function: regulates the balance of phosphate and calcium in the body, aids calcium absorption in the intestine, and promote strong bones and teeth.
  • Dietary sources: oily fish, liver, and egg yolk. Vitamin D is synthesized by the action of ultraviolet light on a particular chemical in the skin.
  • Deficiency leads to: rickets in children; long-term deficiency in adults leads to osteomalacia.
  • Excessive intake of vitamin D may lead to hypercalcaemia and abnormal calcium deposits in the soft tissues, kidneys, and blood vessel walls. In children, it may cause growth retardation.
Vitamin E Tocopherol
  • Functions: essential for normal reproduction, maintaining the activities of certain enzymes and formation of red blood cells.
  • Vitamin E also protects the lungs and other tissues from damage by pollutants and slows aging of cells by neutralizing free radicals.
  • Dietary sources include vegetable oils, nuts, meat, green vegetables, cereals, and egg yolk.
  • Deficiency leads to anaemia.
Vitamin K
  • Functions: aids in formation of substances that promote blood clotting.
  • Dietary sources: green vegetables, vegetable oils, egg yolk, cheese, pork, and liver.
  • Vitamin K is also synthesised by intestinal bacteria.
  • Deficiency leads to nosebleeds and bleeding from the gums, intestine, and urinary tract.
  • Severe cases lead to brain haemorrhage.
Vitamin P Bioflavonoid(citrin)

  • Regulates the permeability of the capillary walls, found in citrus fruit,blackcurrants and rosehips.

NCERT Biology Notes Pdf Vitamins ,Protein,Fat ,carbohydrates

Proteins – What are proteins , Functions In Body and How Help In Growth of Body

  • A protein is a biologically functional molecule made up of polymers of amino acids. Proteins may also contain sugars (glycoproteins) and lipids (lipoproteins). Proteins are an essential part of all living organisms, especially as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies.
  • Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells.

 

TypesDetails
TypesThere are 2 main types of proteins.

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  1. Fibrous proteins – insoluble form of proteins which form the structural basis of many body tissues.
  2. Globular proteins – soluble form of proteins which include all enzymes, hormones, etc…

Based on function, proteins are classified into 8 groups:

  1. Enzymes – act as catalysts in biochemical reactions. e.g. Digestive enzymes.
  2. Receptors – these proteins mediate between a chemical agent that acts on nervous tissue and the physiological response. All organs having nerve endings, which respond to stimuli with the help of receptors.
  3. Hormones – These are regulatory proteins which control the physiological processes such as growth and development, metabolic rates(insulin) etc…
  4. Defensive proteins – These are components of immune system which protect the organism from external agents such as virus and bacteria. e.g. antibodies
  5. Transport proteins – these are special type of proteins capable of transporting substances throughout the circulatory system. e.g. Haemoglobin carries oxygen, lipoprotein carries lipids etc…
  6. Structural proteins – These proteins form a structural part of organism and provide protection along with response and stimuli against external agents. e.g. Keratin(hair, horns, feathers), connective tissues(Collagen, elastin) etc…
  7. Storage proteins – Proteins stored for consumption of offspring. e.g. protein in eggs(albumin), milk(casein), seeds etc…
  8. Contractile and motor proteins – These proteins are essential for locomotion. e.g. Actin and myosin.
Metabolism
  • Before absorption, proteins are broken down into their constituent amino acids. In the absence of carbohydrates, proteins are consumed for energy.
  • Human body requires a mixture of eight amino acids to maintain nitrogenous equilibrium.
  • These amino acids are also known as essential(indispensable) amino acids.
  • These include isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In addition, infants require histidine.
Dietary sources
  • Meat, nuts, legumes, egg, milk etc…
Deficiency diseasesMarasmus:

  • Cause: malnutrition or semi-starvation conditions.
  • It normally affects the children below 3 years.
  • Effects: stunted growth, emaciation, brittle hair, dehydration and loose folds of skin on the limbs and buttocks due to loss of muscle and fat. Persistent marasmus can cause mental handicap and impaired growth.
  • Treatment: providing a high-energy, protein rich diet.

Kwashiorkor:

  • It is one of the most important causes of ill health and death among children in the tropics.
  • It affects typically the small child weaned from the breast and not yet able to cope with an adult diet, or for whom an adequate amount of first-class protein is not available.
  • Cause: malnutrition. Effects: stunted growth and a puffy appearance due to oedema, enlargement of liver, dehydration, and the child loses resistance to infection, which may have fatal consequences. The more advanced stages are marked by jaundice, drowsiness, and a fall in body temperature.
  • Treatment: Child is kept warm and frequently fed with first-class proteins such as small amounts of milk, and vitamin and mineral tablets. A nutritious diet is then gradually introduced. Most treated children recover, but those less than 2 years old may suffer from permanently stunted growth.

 

NCERT Biology Notes Pdf Vitamins ,Protein,Fat ,carbohydrates

Carbohydrates –

  • Essential structural components of living cells and source of energy for animals. Carbohydrates are essential in formation of amino acids and fatty acids.

Composition

  • Carbohydrates are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. Hydrogen and Oxygen are composed in the same ratio as water(2:1).

Types –Carbohydrates are broadly classified into two groups,

Monosaccharides(Simple carbohydrates or simple sugars) with small molecules.

1. Major monosaccharides:

  • Glucose Occurs naturally in several forms in many food sources. e.g. dextrose.
  • Galactose Milk .
  • Fructose Found in honey and in many ripe fruits.

Glucose is absorbed directly by the body, without any breakdown. Galactose and fructose are converted into glucose by liver, before their utilization by body cells. Surplus glucose is converted and stored in the form of glycogen and fat by liver, muscles, and fat cells. Hydrolysis breaks glycogen to form glucose monomers

2-Polysaccharides(Complex carbohydrates or Starches)

  • are polymers formed by combination of monosaccharides through covalent bonds. Polysaccharides are insoluble in water Polysaccharides either serve as storage material(glycogen) or forms building material(cellulose, chitin etc..) for organisms’ structures.

Oligosaccharides: carbohydrates containing between two and ten monosaccharide units linked together.

Disaccharides(double sugars) – formed by combination of two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond.

Major disaccharides:

  • Sucrose -Cane, Beet and many other plants.
  • Maltose -Formed by the action of malt or diastase on starch.
  • Lactose -One glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule. Found only in milk.

Dietary sources -Fruits, cereals and all starch foods.

 

NCERT Biology Notes Pdf Vitamins ,Protein,Fat ,carbohydrates