Nipah Virus pdf – Nipah Virus History,Symptoms,Treatment,Prevention

Nipah Virus pdf – Nipah Virus History,Symptoms,Treatment,Prevention -The National Centre for Disease Control has issued high alert across the country after an outbreak of the Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Kerala. The virus has claimed around 10 lives in the southern state over the past two weeks.

Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a newly emerging zoonosis that causes severe disease in both animals and humans. The natural host of the virus are fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus.

Nipah Virus pdf – Nipah Virus History,Symptoms,Treatment,Prevention

Is this the first reported Nipah virus outbreak?

  • No. Previous outbreaks have been reported in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Cambodia, the Philippines, Laos and Malaysia.
  • NiV was first identified during an outbreak of disease in Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia, in 1998.
  • On this occasion, pigs were the intermediate hosts.
  • However, in subsequent Nipah virus outbreaks, there were no intermediate hosts.
  • In Bangladesh in 2004, humans were infected with Nipah virus after consuming date palm sap that had been contaminated by infected fruit bats.

Nipah Virus pdf - Nipah Virus History,Symptoms,Treatment,Prevention

When Was First Time Nipah Virus Was Identified?

In 1998 – Malaysia 

  • NiV was first identified during an outbreak of disease that took place in Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia in 1998.
  • On this occasion, pigs were the intermediate hosts.
  • However, in subsequent NiV outbreaks, there were no intermediate hosts.

In Bangladesh 2004

  • In Bangladesh in 2004, humans became infected with NiV as a result of consuming date palm sap that had been contaminated by infected fruit bats.
  • Human-to-human transmission has also been documented, including in a hospital setting in India.

NiV infection in humans has a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory syndrome and fatal encephalitis.

NiV is also capable of causing disease in pigs and other domestic animals. There is no vaccine for either humans or animals. The primary treatment for human cases is intensive supportive care.

Who is at high risk ? How is it transmitted ?

  • People working with pigs and consuming pigs are in danger Position . They can be Affected By Nipah virus.
  • Right now Farmers who come in contact with bats are at high risk
  • Consuming Fruits which are already bitten by bat.
  • Contact with people who already have Nipah virus infection.

What are the early symptoms ?

  • The initial presentation is non-specific, Characterized by the sudden onset of fever, headache, muscle pain , nausea and vomiting.
  • Neck rigidity and Photo phobia are also seen.
  • The disease rapidly progresses, with deterioration in consciousness *leading to coma within five to seven days.

How is Nipah Virus Patient  diagnosed ?

  • The Rdiagnosis is by ELISA which is currently done at National institute of Virology, Pune.

How do I prevent from Nipah Virus or What precautions you should Take ?

  1.  Avoid contact with pigs and pig handlers .
  2. Maintain personal Hygeine and intensive hand washing practices
  3. Avoid consuming raw fruits.
  4. Consume only well cooked, clean, home made food till the outbreak settles down.
  5. Preferably use N95 mask while travelling or working in public places to avoid person to person transmission.
  6. Be aware of the symptoms and report to the doctor immediately for early diagnosis and treatment.

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