Permanent Indus Commission pdf for UPSC Mains Exam 2017 -IAS Mains 2017

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Permanent Indus Commission pdf for UPSC Mains Exam 2017 -IAS Mains 2017

Permanent Indus Commission pdf for UPSC Mains Exam 2017 -IAS Mains 2017 – The Permanent Indus Commission, set up under the Indus Waters Treaty 1960, will undertake a tour of inspection of River 1ndus in Gilgit area arranged by the Pakistan Commissioner for Indus Waters from July 13 to July 25, 1962.

The Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) deals with river Indus and its five tributaries, which are classified in 2 categories:

Eastern rivers:Permanent Indus Commission pdf for UPSC Mains Exam 2017 -IAS Mains 2017

  • Sutlej
  • Beas
  • Ravi

Western rivers:

  • Jhelum
  • Chenab
  • Indus

India-Pak Disputes Connecting Indus: Timeline

  • 1948: India cuts off supply in most canals that went to Pakistan. But restores it later.
  • 1951: Pakistan accuses India of cutting water to many of its villages.
  • 1954: Word Bank comes up with a water-sharing formula for two countries.
  • 1960: Indus Waters Treaty signed.
  • 1970’s: India starts building hydropower projects in Kashmir. Pakistan raises concern.
  • 1984: Pakistan objects over India building Tulbul barrage on Jhelum. India stops it unilaterally.
  • 2007: Pakistan raises concern over Kishanganga hydroelectric plant.
  • 2008: Lashkar-e-Taiba starts campaign against India. Its chief Hafiz Saeed accuses India of water terrorism.
  • 2010: Pakistan accuses India of choking water supply consistently.
  • 2016: India reviews working of Indus Waters Treaty linking it with cross-border terrorism (Uri attack).

Permanent Indus Commission pdf for UPSC Mains Exam 2017 -IAS Mains 2017

What is the issue?
  • India accepted Pakistan’s invitation to the next round of talks, as it has for the Permanent Indus Commission (PIC) in Lahore .

Facts to know about the Indus water Treaty:

  1. The Indus Waters Treaty was signed on September 19, 1960 by the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan.
  2. It was brokered by the World Bank.
  3. The treaty administers how river Indus and its tributaries that flow in both the countries will be utilised.
  4. According to the treaty, Beas, Ravi and Sutlej are to be governed by India, while, Indus, Chenab and Jhelum are to be taken care by Pakistan.
  5. However, since Indus flows from India, the country is allowed to use 20 per cent of its water for irrigation, power generation and transport purposes.
  6. A Permanent Indus Commission was set up as a bilateral commission to implement and manage the Treaty. The Commission solves disputes arising over water sharing.
  7. The Treaty also provides arbitration mechanism to solve disputes amicably.
  8. Though Indus originates from Tibet, China has been kept out of the Treaty. If China decides to stop or change the flow of the river, it will affect both India and Pakistan.
  9. Climate change is causing melting of ice in Tibetan plateau, which scientists believe will affect the river in future.
  10. It maybe noted that both India and Pakistan are still at loggerheads over various issues since Partition, but there has been no fight over water after the Treaty was ratified. 

What is a PIC?

  • Under the treaty, India has full use of the three “eastern” rivers (Beas, Ravi, Sutlej), while Pakistan has control over the three “western” rivers (Indus, Chenab, Jhelum), although India is given rights to use these partially as well for certain purposes.
  • The Permanent Indus Commission mandated to implement the Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) has met every year, since 1960.
  • The commission has experts who look into issues and disputes on the ground over the utilisation of the waters of six rivers of the Indus system.

What is the impact of the recent move?

  • Doubts had been raised over India’s commitment after the terrorist attack on an army camp in Uri.
  • In the days that followed, senior officials announced the suspension of talks until there was an “atmosphere free of terror”.
  • Prime Minister also made an infamous remark of “blood and water cannot go together”.
  • The atmosphere was also charged after the surgical strikes along the Line of Control and subsequent pulling out from the SAARC summit in Pakistan, leading to fears of a freeze in bilateral ties.
  • But the move is welcome, as it denotes India’s commitment to the treaty that has stood the test of time and war.
  • It also displays India’s sincerity on the issue of water-sharing, given that the IWT is seen to be a model in dispute management.

What are the other positive moves?

  • There has been a marked reduction in LoC firing.
  • They both exchanged the annual list of their nuclear installations under a bilateral agreement that prohibits them from attacking each other’s atomic facilities.
  • There was a release of prisoners by both countries
  • India was part of the consensus to elect the Pakistani nominee as the SAARC Secretary-General this week.
  • It is premature to expect anything out of the current move.
  • However, they reaffirm the need to keep certain issues such as water-sharing above the politics of the moment.

Permanent Indus Commission pdf for UPSC Mains Exam 2017 -IAS Mains 2017

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