Role Of Civil Services in Indian Democracy Pdf – IAS Mains Notes
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Introduction – In the process of governance, which involves several set of activities to deliver effective services to people, civil service plays a pivotal role in providing shape to policies that reflect people’s needs and put their suggestive, analytical and informative roles to implement the policies. It is recognized that civil service plays a crucial role in all societies whether developed or developing. In the modern administrative state, public administration has become so significant that our development, upliftment and progress depend mainly upon the efficient functioning of public administration. Civil Services are the bedrock of public administration. Civil services have assumed more important role in democracy to ensure good governance, both in developing and developed countries.
Bureaucracy or civil services is an administrative body of officials whose roles are determined by written rules. It’s an impersonal system operating on the basis of calculable rules and staffed by full time appointed officials. Weber identified the following characteristics of bureaucracy:
- Officers are organised in a clearly defined hierarchy of offices.
- Candidates are selected on the basis of technical qualifications.
- They are remunerated by fixed salaries in money.
- It constitutes a career. There is a system of ‘promotion’ according to seniority or to achievement or both.
- The official works entirely separated from ownership of the means of administration and without appropriation of his positions.
- Each office has a defined sphere of competence.
- The officials are personally free and subject to authority only with respect to their impersonal official obligations. Past 20 years Essay Papers Pdf Download -UPSC Mains
Importance of Civil Services in modern day democracy
A number of factors have contributed the increasing importance of civil service in modern day society:
- The scientific and technological development: They have led to revolutionary changes in transportation and communication system. The invention of telephone, telegraph, railways and airways has made big government and large scale administration possible.
- Industrial revolution: It brought about certain changes in society. It led to the growth of large scale industries and factory production, over-crowded industrial towns and urban slums. The factory system also resulted in certain evils such as growth of capitalism, large-scale unemployment, exploitation of labour etc. In the interest of socio-economic justice, governments in the developed and developing countries have to assume new responsibilities to set right the bad effects of the above evils. The tasks and responsibilities as well as the importance of civil service have thus vastly increased.
- Economic Planning: Modern governments have resorted to planning as a method of achieving economic development and goals of welfare state. The new responsibilities relating to planning activities, i.e., plan formulation and implementation and creation of elaborate necessary administrative machinery have naturally widened the scope of public administration. However, in the new liberalized economic reforms, planning as a method of economic development and the administrative functions relating to it are gradually getting diminished.Download Sriram IAS Biology Material Pdf Free for UPSC
- Calamities and crisis: Natural calamities such as earthquakes, floods, droughts and cyclones have also enhanced the importance of civil services. In the event of occurrence of such natural calamities, the public administrators have to act quickly and undertake rescue operations in order to prevent loss of life and property of the affected people. Thus crisis management is an important function of public administration.
- Population and the problems of metropolitan cities: The rapid growth of population in almost all the countries of the world, especially in developing countries, has complicated the problems of providing food, shelter, education, health and sanitation etc. to the people. Also, the growth of metropolitan cities has created certain problems peculiar to them. Some of the problems include congestion, growth of slums, housing scarcity, insufficient water supply, increasing urban crime rate etc. The responsibility for tackling these acute social and economic problems has resulted in the increase in the sphere of activity of civil service.
- Emergence of welfare state: As a welfare state, governments have to perform major functions such as dispenser of social services, a provider of essential commodities, a manager of key industries and banking services and a controller and regulator of private economic enterprises and activities. This has naturally increased the importance of civil service.
- Role of civil services in governance Civil services perform following important functions:
Basis of government: No government can exist without administrative machinery. All nations, irrespective of their system of government, require some sort of administrative machinery for implementing policies.
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