Surat Split Notes -Modern history notes For SSC,UPSC,CDS,NDA

Surat Split Notes -Modern history notes For SSC,UPSC,CDS,NDA – The Congress split at Surat took place in the year 1907 in the month of December. Around this time, revolutionary terrorism had gained momentum. These 2 events were seemingly connected.


Surat Split Notes -Modern history notes For SSC,UPSC,CDS,NDA

In December 1905, at the Benaras session of the Indian National Congress presided over by Gokhale, the Moderate-Extremist differences came to the front.Dandi March Notes Indian Modern history Notes -IAS,SSC

In 1907 the Surat session was held at the bank of the Tapti river in Surat. The Extremist camp was led by Lal Bal Pal and the moderate camp was led by Gopal Krishna Gokhle. Here congress met in an atmosphere of anger and resentment.Kakori Conspiracy Notes Pdf Download – Modern History

Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh was elected in the session but  extremists had an objection to this election. Initially the extremists protested against the election but soon they accepted Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh as the president and offered to cooperate. But the session was suspended. Congress got split.

By the time, the next session of Congress was held in Madras in 1908 under Dr. Rash Behari Ghosh, it was the extremist camp that was facing the Lathis and arrest by the British Government who was now in its comfortable position as Congress was divided.

Differences between Moderates and Extremists in Indian History

Moderate Extremist
  1. Social base zamindars and upper middle classes in towns.
  2. Ideological inspiration western liberal thought and European history.
  3. Believed in England’s providential mission in India.
  4. Believed political connections with Britain to be in India’s social, political and cultural interests.
  5. Professed loyalty to the British Crown.
  6. Believed that the movement should be limited to middle class intelligentsia; masses not yet ready for participation in political work
  7. Demanded constitutional reforms and share for Indians in services.
  8. Insisted on the use of constitutional methods only.
  9. They were patriots and did not play the role of a comprador class.
  1. Social base educated middle and lower middle classes in towns.
  2. Ideological inspiration Indian history, cultural heritage and Hindu traditional symbols.
  3. Rejected ‘providential mission theory’ as an illusion.
  4. Believed that political connections with Britain would perpetuate British exploitation of India.
  5. Believed that the British Crown was unworthy of claiming Indian loyalty.
  6. Had immense faith in the capacity of masses to parti­cipate and to make sacrifices.
  7. Demanded swaraj as the panacea for Indian ills.
  8. Did not hesitate to use extra- constitutional methods like boycott and passive resistance to achieve their objectives.
  9. They were patriots who made sacrifices for the sake of the country.


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