Swachh Bharat Mission Replace Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan -Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) previously called Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was initiated by the Government in 1999.

Swachh Bharat Mission Replace Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan

  • The main goal of the program was to eradicate the practice of open defecation by 2017.
  • It was a demand-driven and people-centered sanitation program.
  • It focused not only on building infrastructure for sanitation, but also on changing cultural norms to prevent open-defecation.
  • It provided monetary assistance to BPL families, schools, and anganwadis, among others, to construct their own toilets.
  • It also focused on Information, Education, and communication to change the attitude of the people towards sanitation.
  • To build ownership among the community regarding the program ‘Nirmal Gram Puraskar’, monetary assistance and public recognition was given to those gram panchayats which achieved an ‘open defecation free’ status.
  • Due to efforts of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, access to toilets in rural areas has increased from nearly 33 percent to 41 percent, between Census 2011 and NSSO survey of 2013.
  • To take the practice of sanitation to the next level by removing bottlenecks that were hindering progress, the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, which primarily aimed at rural sanitation has been restructured and merged with Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • The Swachh Bharat Mission which focuses on sanitation not only in rural areas, but also in urban areas.
  • Swachh Bharat Mission has two sub-Missions – Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).
  • The Drinking Water and Sanitation Ministry will implement the programme in rural areas, while the Ministry of Urban Development will do the same in urban areas.
  • While the ‘Swatch Bharat Mission’ was announced by the president in the joint session of the parliament in June 2014.
  • The Swachh Bharat Mission was launched on 2nd October 2014, by the Prime Minister (PM) as a tribute to Mahatma Gandhi.
  • His vision of Clean India – Swachh Bharat which still remained unfulfilled is planned to be accomplished through this program.
  • It’s a five year long campaign from 2014–2019.
  • The program is slated to culminate in the year 2019 which is also Gandhiji’s 150th birthday.
  • The programme includes elimination of open defecation, conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradication of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management and bringing about a behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices.

The Swachh Bharat Mission aims to:

  1. Elimination of open defecation
  2. Conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toilets
  3. Eradication of manual scavenging
  4. 100% collection and scientific processing/disposal/reuse/recycling of municipal solid waste
  5. A behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices
  6. Generation of awareness among citizens about sanitation and its linkages with public health
  7. Supporting urban local bodies in designing, executing and operating waste disposal systems
  8. Facilitating private-sector participation in capital expenditure and operation and maintenance costs for sanitary facilities
  9.  create sanitation facilities for all and  eliminate completely open defacation by 2019;
  10. build ownership among community. Thus,  solid and liquid waste management would be done through gram panchayats, whereas public toilets and community sanitary complexes through Public Private Partnership (PPP)
  11.  Triggering of communities for behavioural change and usage of toilets shall be given top priority to ensure increased demand, which will lead to use of assets such created.
  12. Effective use of technology and media shall be done to communicate the message of the benefits of safe sanitation and hygiene.

Swachh Bharat Mission In Urban Areas –

  • The mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households
  • This mission aim to provide 2.5 lakh community toilets In Urban Areas and  2.6 lakh public toilets in Urban Areas
  • under this Mission in each town there will be  a solid waste management facility in each town.
  • Under the programme, community toilets will be built in residential areas where it is difficult to construct individual household toilets.
  • Public toilets will also be constructed in designated locations such as tourist places, markets, bus stations, railway stations, etc.
  • The programme will be implemented over a five-year period in 4,401 towns.
  • Of the Rs 62,000 crore likely to be spent on the programme.
  • Out of these 62000 crore  the Centre will pitch in Rs 14,623 crore.
  • Of the Centre’s share of Rs 14,623 crore, Rs 7,366 crore will be spent on solid waste management.
  • Rs 4,165 crore on individual household toilets
  • Rs 1,828 crore on public awareness and Rs 655 crore on community toilets.

Swachh Bharat Mission In Rural Areas – 

  • Under the mission, One lakh thirty four thousand crore rupees will be spent for construction of about 11 crore 11 lakh toilets in the country.
  • Technology will be used on a large scale to convert waste into wealth in rural India in the forms of bio-fertilizer and different forms of energy.
  • The mission is to be executed on war footing with the involvement of every gram panchayat, panchayat samiti and Zila Parishad in the country, besides roping in large sections of rural population and school teachers and students in this endeavor.
  • As part of the mission, for rural households, the provision for unit cost of individual household latrine has been increased from Rs 10,000 to Rs 12,000 so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing and cleaning of toilets.
  • Central share for such latrines will be Rs 9,000 while state share will be Rs 3,000.
  • For North Eastern states, Jammu & Kashmir and special category states, the Central share will be 10,800 and the state share Rs 1,200.
  • Additional contributions from other sources will be permitted.

Swachh Bharat Mission At School Level-

  • Talk in the school assembly by a few children on different aspects of cleanliness every day especially with regard to the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi, on cleanliness & hygiene.
  • Cleaning of the class rooms, laboratories, libraries etc.
  • Cleaning of any statue installed in the school and a talk on the contribution of the person whose statue is installed in the school.
  • Cleaning of toilets and drinking water areas.
  • Cleaning of kitchen sheds stores etc.
  • Cleaning of playgrounds.
  • Cleaning and maintenance of school gardens.
  • Annual maintenance of the school buildings including white wash and painting.
  • Organise essay, debates, painting, competitions on cleanliness and hygiene.
  • Constitution of Childrens’ Cabinets to supervise and monitor cleanliness drive.

Swachh Bharat is proposed to be achieved through:– 

  1.   Coverage of all rural households with  individual  household  latrines, cluster toilets, and construction of school and anganwadi toilets in all Gram Panchayats.
  2. Construction of  public & community toilets in urban areas,
  3.  Creation of enhanced demand, convergent action through various agencies and stake-holders with triggering through enhanced IEC, Informal Education and Communication;
  4. Strengthening of implementation and delivery mechanisms By Various agencies and organizations
  5. Monitoring  outputs (construction) and  outcomes (use) at the Gram Panchayat as well as household levels.
  6. Proper coordination between Centre and State Agencies .
  7. Transfer of the responsibility of construction of all School toilets to the Department of School Education and Literacy and of Anganwadi toilets to the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  8. State shall prepare annual plan for Implementation of Swachh Bharat Mission ,
  9. State with better performance will be Incentivise

Funding for these new initiatives will be through the following:

  1.  Budgetary allocations by govenrment of India and Govenrment Of States
  2.  Contributions to the Swachh Bharat Kosh;
  3. through commitments under Corporate Social responsibility (CSR); and
  4. Funding assistance from multilateral sources.
  5. Government also put 2 percent cess for Swachh Bharat Mission

 Major issues of Swachh Bharat Mission 

  1. According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Urban India generates about 47 million tonnes of solid waste every year.
  2. It is also reported that more than 75 percent of sewage or wastewater disposal is not treated in India.
  3. Recycling solid waste is a big problem.
  4. These issues need to be addressed now, so that a major crisis can be prevented in the future.
  5. In rural India, lack of adequate sanitation is a huge challenge.
  6. Another major challenge is to change the mindsets of the people. When will our countrymen learn not to spit or throw garbage on the roads? Or when will our people learn to keep themselves and their localities clean?
  7. Another important issue is Open Defection In India In Both Rural As well As Urban Areas
  • Open defecation 
  • It is the practice of defecating outside and in public, in and around the local community, as a result of ingrained cultural patterns or having no access to toilets, latrines, or any kind of improved sanitation.
  • WHO and UNICEF state that about 611 million people in urban areas lack toilets world-wide (around/over the world); whereas number goes up to, nearly 2001 million in rural areas.
  • However, these figures do not include the Slums, shanty-towns, and illegal refugee colonies; which mean that urban sanitation needs are far more acute than reported.
  • Overall 1 billion people around the world are forced to practice open defecation.
  • Even it has been found, the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan promoting rural sanitation,  both, by providing means to create facility, and promoting the initiative by incentivizing in the form of Nirmal Gram Puraskar, could not bring any drastic change in this behavioural pattern.Impact of open defecation on health and societyOpen defecation pollutes the ground water as well as land resources including agricultural products. Every minute about 1.1 million liters of human excrement enters the river Ganga. These pathogens then enter the human body either through food or water mixed with feces.
    Open defecation is a leading cause of diarrheal death among children. Diarrhea is the third largest killer of children under five, in Sub-Saharan Africa. It also leads to typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, polio, pneumonia, fatal worm infestation, trachoma, stunted physical development, and impaired cognitive function. According to the World Health Organization, an average of Rs. 6,500 per person is lost in India due to lack of cleanliness and hygiene. Thus the Swacch Bharat Mission has with it, not only promise of cleanliness and improved health, but also of improved economic conditions.

The dimensions of the problem of sanitation are so huge that it makes us wonder whether the PM will really be able to meet his target to clean up India by 2019 or not?

Major controversy About Swachh Bharat Mission –

  • While Prime Minister’s Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has been highly acclaimed by many in India and abroad, there are still controversies involved in the mission.
  • Similar programmes were launched earlier with little or no success, the most evident example being Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan.
  • Controversies have come up because this programme too has more or less same ideas that were under UPA’s Nirmal Bharat schemes.
  • Huge amount of money was invested for that program that time. What was the outcome? Where did all the money go? But, as a matter of fact, this mission should not be involved in any kind of controversies.
  • That is why, Narendra Modi said, “Swachh Bharat” mission is “beyond politics” and is inspired by patriotism.

Important note – 

  • Mere launching a program is not enough, results matter. It is not only the Government who can make it a success, people’s participation is of utmost importance. Also, a detailed blue print should be prepared for implementing the programme.
  • India will definitely be a clean country in coming years provided the Government and the people participate in this Swachh Bharat Mission in a holistic manner.
  • Government should make people participate in the process through awareness, acknowledgements and encouragement.
  • People participation is very important for clean india campaign because this is not a single man job . We should  participate in clean india campaign .
  • Remembering Mahatma Gandhi?getting freedom was not a “one man’s job” rather it was the result of a collective effort of all the people.
  • But what Mahatma did was he inspired people to achieve freedom for them, which resulted into a great revolution.
  • Even for cleanliness also he was not only cleaning himself but also was always asking everybody to clean his/her own surrounding. That’s the way great objectives are achieved.
  • No great objective has ever been achieved without a collective effort. The point is, we have miles to go if we want to achieve an “Entirely Clean India” with every house hold having toilets, clean water and a clean surrounding. And it’s not a prime minister or a bunch of ministers, who are picking up broom in their hands, will achieve that in one day. Rather it’s a constant process of communicating, inspiring and educating the people for a mass participation in the same.
  • So our ministers must rise above the mere photo opportunities or tokenism and start doing things in reality. Then only we can hope for a “Clean India”.
  • And at last I must say we as citizen should understand that cleanliness is not only a virtue but it’s a responsibility as a human!

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