Terminology Associated With Population pdf – Birth rate,Death Rate Etc

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Terminology Associated With Population pdf - Birth rate,Death Rate Etc

Terminology Associated With Population pdf – Birth rate,Death Rate Etc

Birth Rate

  • Birth rate is the total number of live births in a particular area (an entire country, a state, a district or other territorial unit) during a specified period (usually a year) divided by the total population of that area in thousands.
  • In other words, the birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 population.

Death Rate

  • The death rate is a similar statistic, expressed as the number of deaths in a given area during a given time per 1000 population.

Growth Rate

  • The rate of natural increase or the growth rate of population refers to the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. When this difference is zero (or, in practice, very small) then we say that the population has ‘stabilized’, or has reached the ‘replacement level’, which is the rate of growth required for new generations to replace the older ones that are dying out.
  • Sometimes, societies can experience a negative growth rate – that is, their fertility levels are below the replacement rate. This is true of many countries and regions in the world today, such as Japan, Russia, Italy and Eastern Europe.
  • On the other hand, some societies experience very high growth rates, particularly when they are going through the demographic transition described on the previous page.

Fertility Rate

  • The fertility rate refers to the number of live births per 1000 women in the child-bearing age group, usually taken to be 15 to 49 years.
  • But like the other rates discussed above (the birth and death rates) this is a ‘crude’ rate- it is a rough average for an entire population and does not take account of the differences across age-groups.
  • Differences across age groups can sometimes be very significant in affecting the meaning of indicators.
  • That is why demographers also calculate age-specific rates.
  • The total fertility rate refers to the total number of live births that a hypothetical woman would have if she lived through the reproductive age group and had the average number of babies in each segment of this age group as determined by the age-specific fertility rates for that area.
  • Another way of expressing this is that the total fertility rate is the ‘the average number of births to a cohort of women up to the end of the reproductive age period (estimated on the basis of the age-specific rates observed during a given period).

Mortality Rates

  • The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of babies before the age of one year per 1000 live births.
  • Likewise, the maternal mortality rate is the number of women who die in child- birth per 1000 live births.
  • High rates of infant and maternal mortality are an unambiguous indicator of backwardness and poverty; development is accompanied by sharp falls in these rates as medical facilities and levels of education, awareness and prosperity increase.

Life expectancy

  • This refers to the estimated number of years that an average person is expected to survive. It is calculated on the basis of data on age-specific death rates in a given area over a period of time.

Sex ratio

  • The sex ratio refers to the number of females per 1000 males in a given area at a specified time period.

Age structure

  • The age structure of the population refers to the proportion of persons indifferent age groups relative to the total population.
  • The age structure changes in response to changes in levels of development and the average life expectancy. Initially, poor medical facilities, prevalence of disease and other factors make for a relatively short life span. Moreover, high infant and maternal mortality rates also have an impact on the age structure.
  • With development, quality of life improves and with it the life expectancy also improves.
  • This changes the age structure: relatively smaller proportions of the population are found in the younger age groups and larger proportions in the older age groups. This is also referred to as the aging of the population.

Dependency ratio

  • The dependency ratio is a measure comparing the portion of a population which is composed of dependents (i.e., elderly people who are too old to work, and children who are too young to work) with the portion that is in the working age group, generally defined as 15 to 64 years.
  • The dependency ratio is equal to the population below 15 or above 64, divided by population in the 15-64 age group; the ratio is usually expressed as a percentage. Or in other words, Dependency Ratio = Population in the age group 0-14 + Population in the age group 60 + or 65 + Population in the age group 15-59 or 15-64.

Terminology Associated With Population pdf – Birth rate,Death Rate Etc