UPSC Prelims 2017 Physical Geography Notes pdf Physical Geography Study Material

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UPSC Prelims 2017 Physical Geography Notes pdf Physical Geography Study Material

UPSC Prelims 2017 Physical Geography Notes pdf Physical Geography Study Material – Hello Friends Welcome to studydhaba.com .Here We Are Sharing Physical geography Study Material for UPSC prelims And Mains 2017 Exam.

UPSC Prelims 2017 Physical Geography Notes pdf Physical Geography Study Material

UPSC Prelims 2017 Physical Geography Notes pdf Physical Geography Study Material

GEOMORPHOLOGY

  1. Basic Geomorphological Concepts
  2. Interior Of The Earth – Seismic Waves, Types Of Layers
  3. 3. Classification Of Rocks
  4. Endo-Genetic Forces
  5. Earthquakes And Volcanoes
  6. Mountains
  7. Plains
  8. Plateaus 9. Exo-Genetic Forces Leading ToWeathering
  9. Erosion Processes
  10. Landforms (Erosional And Depositional)

CLIMATOLOGY

  1. Atmospheric Composition
  2. Basic Concepts and Terminologies 3. Insolation and Heat Budget
  3. Temperature
  4. Atmospheric Circulation – Pressure Belts
  5. Winds 7. Precipitation
  6. Clouds
  7. JET Streams
  8. Air Masses
  9. Fronts and Cyclones 12. Climatic Zones of the World

OCEANOGRAPHY

  1. Ocean Topography 2. Ocean Temperature
  2. Ocean Salinity
  3. Ocean Currents And Tides
  4. Ocean Resources

BIOGEOGRAPHY

  1. Soil Characteristics and Soil Profiles and Horizons Soil Formation Process
  2. Soil Profiles and Horizons 3. Type of Soils

INDIAN PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

  1. Himalayan Physiography
  2. Northern Plains, Plateaus And Desert
  3. Coastal Plains and Islands
  4. Climate of India 5. Climatic Division Region-Wise

FACTS – UNIVERSE

  1. Universe
  2. Other Geographical Facts

Geomorphology is a systematic and organized description and analysis of the surface landforms, processes and landscape evolution of the Earth.

The basic concepts related to geomorphology are:

Continental Drift

  • The theory of Continental Drift is an attempt to explain the present arrangement of continents and ocean basins.
  • Alfred Wegner,is regarded as the father of the concept of Continental Drift.
  • Wegner hypothesized that the super continent (Pangaea) broke up to form: (i) Laurasia (N. America, Greenland and all Eurasia north of the Indian Subcontinent) and (ii) the Gondwanaland (South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, South West Asia, Australia and Antarctica).
  • The Pangaea was surrounded by a huge sea Panthalassa (Pan = all, thalassa = oceans) or the Pacific Ocean.
  • He opined that continents are made of SiAl and Ocean basins of SiMa.

According to Wegener continents drifted in two directions:

  1. a) Towards the Equator (due to : gravitational attraction exerted by the earth’s equatorial bulge). As a result of this drift, the Himalayas and Alps etc, came into existence. The Peninsular Indian and Africa were separated from the Antarctica and Australia.
  2. b) The Second drift was towards the west (due to tidal force of the Moon and the Sun). North and South America got separated from Europe and Africa and the Andes and Rockies Mountains came into existence.

Evidence in support of Continental Drift

  • Similarities are found in the opposing coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Jig saw of the opposing coasts of Atlantic Ocean.
  • Fossils of gloss opteris (a fern – like plant) have been found in rocks of the same age from S. America, S. Africa, India and Australia.
  • Folded mountain ranges at Cape of Good Hope and rocks of Buenos Aires (Argentina) resemble.
  • Major lava plateaus of South America, W. Africa, Madagascar, India and Antarctica have the same geological structures.
  • Evidence from Glaciations as about 300 million years back (Paleozoic Era) glaciers covered the Southern Hemisphere including South America, Africa, India, Australia.
  • Great coal deposits in the tundra and cold climatic regions of Antarctica, Siberia, North Europe.
  • According to Wegener, Poles have changed their position, e.g. during the Carboniferous Period, the South Pole was near Natal and the North Pole was in the Pacific Ocean.

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