Queen Elizabeth declaration led to settlement of 13 colonies. Virginia was the first colony (1607)
- America was completely under the control of England which led to economic exploitation of Americans which hampered growth and development.
- Navigation Law of 1651 – Compulsory for American ships to attend British ports before leaving for other ports of the world.
- Exim Policy – Britain had a trading monopoly in crucial products of America like Potato, Tobacco, Cotton etc
- Industrial Policy – Americans were not allowed to establish big production units.
- It became land of opportunity. Creation of new social structure which was different from Europe. It became melting pot of all sorts of people, ideas, religion and tradition. This led to a liberal attitude in society.
- People were detached from their mother land. The large part of the population consisted of rebels, refugees, convicts who were in search for the future. Large scale migration took place. e.g Pilgrim Fathers – Protestant groups which had escaped to save itself from operation of catholic saints
- Dynamism of society – Turned barren land into area of plantations and production which forced Europe to rely on American goods and products.
- Dissatisfaction – Fruits of American labour were snatched away by Britain.
Intellectual class provides for reason for crisis and solution for it.
- Thomas Paine: He published a journal called Common Sense. He explained the economic exploitation of America by Britain.
- Benjamin Franklin: He established philosophical society of America to create awakening and awareness.
- Henry Pattrick: Provoked the people when he said that give me death or independence.
- 7 year war between France and Britain wrecked Britain economically. It gave promotion to American goods and industry. For the first time America got free hand to take their product directly to world marke. This increased the status of America and energised its people.
- Defeat of French in the North. It ended the French fear for American colonies.
Discuss the important Events
Britain was going under financial crisis after 7 years war and was desperately needing money. Grenville (British PM) imposed new taxes on Americ e.g stamp duty, sugar duty.
Imposed old restrictions on American trade and commerce like navigation law of 1651.
Americans raised the issue of Englishman Resolution (1689) which promised representation in parlimaent to tax paying section. Americans raised the slogans of No Taxation Without Representation.
Formation of organisations like Son’s of Liberty and Daughter’s of Liberty which raided stamp vendors and burnt down stamps.
Britain failed to see the real cause for agitation and through this declaration abolished stamp duties.
Samuel Adams led a mass protest in Boston. Britain committed the mistake of taking military action which led to Boston Massacre.
It was the beginning of new political phenomenon i.e. protest by the people for their rights from the ruler. This was not possible in pre modern age because of the concept of divine rights.
Boston Tea Party
Britain imposed tax on tea imports in America. This was widely resented. Samuel Adams disguised himself and others as native Indians, entered the port and threw all Tea into the Atlantic Ocean. Britain closed the Boston port and this led to further protests.
Philadelphia Convention of 1774
- Formation of American Union. Unity of American colonies against exploitation of Britain.
- Americans sent Olive Branch Petition. They were still ready to be under the parentage of Britain on the condition that restriction on trade should be remove and representation in parliament.
2nd Philadelphia Convention
- America declared itself independent.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
The $ army was led by George Washington. After some initial reverses they were able to defeat English. They were helped in this cause by French who wanted to seek revenge from old foe. Later Spain also joined hands in defeating Britain.
Britain accepted the independence of America.
3rd Philadelphia Convention (1787)
- American Colonies turned into American Union which was later called as United States.
- It was a Republic. Head of the state was to be elected.
- Birth of man made constitution based on the principle of humanism providing liberty and equality of the people.
- Modern democratic set up.
- IR -> Economic Revolution | AR -> Political Revolution
- Promotion to modern political ideology like liberty, equality. Fundamental Rights. Beginning of demand of rights from common people.
- Dominance of common man in admin and politics. Slogan of govt of the people, by the people and for the people
- Inspiration to other colonies. Soon colonies in South America revolted against Spain and got independence.
- Inspiration for French Revolution
After the American Revolution US underwent massive expansion. It was divided into North and Southern states along the Maxon Dixon Line.
How did US expand after American Revolution?
- Louisiana the largest state was purchased from Napolean in France in 1803.
- Florida was taken from Spain.
- Native Indians were removed from their territories and were sent to the west of Mississippi river.
- Mexico was defeated in a war during 1846-48 and states of Nevada, California, Colorado etc were incorporated.
- Thus US grew from 13 states to 48 states by the middle of the 19th century.
Discuss the economic situation in Northern and Southern States.
- These states were New York, New Jersey, Michigan etc.
- They were Industrialised, rich followed capitalism and had access to vast natural resources.
- There were 1200 cotton mills. Business, banking and shipping sectors developed.
- Universities of Harvard and Yale began to attract large number of students.
- Construction of canals and railroads.
- These states received large number of immigrants from Europe who were liberal and had progressive outlook.
- Demanded strong tariff policy to protect industry from European competition.
- Wished to abolish slavery out of humanitarian concern. Feared that western states would also come under slavery.
- These states were South Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, Florida and Texas.
- Economically backward. Feudalism dominated.
- Agricultural economy. Plantation dominated e.g Cotton, Tobacco were dominant crops. Cotton was king.
- They opposed increase of tariff duty as they imported their agri tools from Europe
- Employed large number of slaves on farms. Slaves were mostly brought from West Africa. They had no right and could not become free. They were subjected to torture and flogging. Plantation workers were haughty, aristocratic.
- They were against the abolition of slavery and considered any such move to be harmful to their economy and as evil designs of northern territory.
How did Northern and Southern States viewed the system of slavery?
- Northern condemned slavery as it was against their conscience. Britain had outlawed slavery in 1833.
- Number of anti-slavery societies were formed in cities e.g New England Anti Slavery Society (1832) and American Anti-Slavery Society (1833).
- William Garrison started an anti slavery newspaper The Liberator.
- Uncle Toms Cabin a novel by Ms Stowe reflected the miserable condition of slaves in Southern States.
- Northern were afraid that slavery would spread to newly conquered territories.
- There were 4.5 million slaves. Southern states viewed slavery as a source of sustenance and believed that without plantation workers their economy would be doomed.
- The Fugitive Slave Act (1850) forced the northern states to arrest the escaped slaves and hand back to the owner.
- They blamed Northern States for encouraging revolt of the states.
Discuss the events leading upto Civil War.
Missouri Agreeement (1820)
It was meant to keep balance between anti slavery north and pro slavery south. It admitted Missouri as a state where slavery could be practiced and Maine where slavery was prohibited.
Dred Scott Incident (1857)
Dred Scott, a slave, went to the north and lived there for some time. He petitioned the Supreme Court to make him a free citizen on the ground that he had lived in free states. SC denied him free citizenship. SC declared Missouri Compromise as unconstitutional. It ruled that Congress had no power to decide on the issue of slavery.
Rise of Republican Party
Republican Party was born to end slavery in US. At that time Congress was dominated by members from the South. Republicans desired introduction of high tariff on imported goods to protect business interest in North whereas southern states were dead against it.
7 States Leave the Union
South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi etc. left the union and formed Federation of States in 1861. Lincoln stated that states had no right to secede from the union. He declared that Union was older than Constitution.
Southern states formed a Confederacy and declared Jefferson Davis as its President. It hoped of gaining support from Britain and France.
Course of The Civil War
- The war broke when southern states attackd Fort Sumter. The fall of fort led Lincoln to declare war against south.
- Lincoln declared a state of emergency and suspended all civil liberties enjoyed by citizens.
- He raised a force of 30,000 troops and ordered them to march to Richmond, Virginia which was the capital of Confederates. The Union troops were however defeated.
- James Brown raided military arsenal and supplied arms and ammunition to slaves to fight against their masters. A large number of liberated slaves helped Union forces during the war as volunteers.
- Commander Ulysses Grant led a major campaign and captured Confederate forts. This was followed by victory in the famous Battle of Gettysberg in 1863.
- The victory in Gettysberg ended the war.
Reasons for South’s Defeat?
- North had a population of 23 million which was wealth compared to poor Southern states which had only 9 million population.
- The North enjoyed better communication system, railroad and weapons. The industrial development gave an edge over backward south.
- Britain remained neutral during the war. South expected Britain to intervene as it was a major importer of cotton from south. Britain hailed the emancipation proclamation by Lincoln. The relationship between Britain and North eased. Britain imported sufficient quantity of cotton from India and wheat from Northern States.
- The Northern generals adopted better strategy and had better navy through which it imposed naval blockage which prevented flow of arms and ammunition to southern states.
Outcome of War?
- After the passage of 13th Amendment slavery was abolished. The unity of the union was preserved.
- Both sides suffered heavy casualties. South was totally devastated and its economy collapsed.
- Through 14th and 15th amendment civil rights were extended to former male slaves.
- It acted as catalyst for industrialisation of US. By the end of 19th century US became an industrial giant.
- In the South unlawful and anti social organisations like Ku Klux Klan and the Knights of the White Camellia (white supremacist groups) took to kidnapping and torturing black people. The prejudiced towards blacks manifested for a long time.
- Civil war was the message of efficiently handling of internal crisis by mature leaders.
Discuss the Role of Abraham Lincoln?
- Lincoln (1809 – 1865) was born in a poor family in Kentucky and did not have any formal education. He showed keen interest in studies and passed bar examination and started practising as a lawyer in 1836. He impressed people with his “shrewdness, common sense and honesty”. He earned the nickname “Honest Abe”.
- He became a member of House of Representatives and joined Republican Party in 1856.
- He stood for Presidential election and defeated Stephen Douglas (ardent supporter of slavery). He became the 16th President of USA.
Role in Slavery Abolition
- He argued that slavery was morally wrong and opposed its extention into new territories.
- He stated that important priority for him was American union which was formed by the sacrifice of ancestors. This created an emotional wave.
- He took military action against south. He took help of volunteers for propagating the cause of American union.
- He succeeded in moving the 13th amendment in 1865. By this amendment slavery was abolished in America. He showed exemplary leadership and maturity in handling internal crisis.
- After the civil war he planned the reconstruction of south.
- He was assassinated on 14 April, 1865.
- Gettysberg Address : “Government of the people, by the people and for the people”