World History Notes Italy Unification Pdf Download for UPSC

World History Notes Italy Unification Pdf Download for UPSC for Mains . These Notes are Prepared By UPSC Topper . You can trust these notes .World History Notes Italy Unification Pdf Download for UPSC.

World History Notes Italy Unification Pdf Download for UPSC

To Download This File Click On The Download- Download Now 
UNIFICATION OF ITALY
Reasons?
  1. Common bond of unity among Italian states.
  2. Italy was the gateway of Europe and it was always the bone of contention between Austria and France. This led to the exploitation by different empires.
  3. Napolean abolished smaller states and established republics implementing uniform political and administrative structure. This acted as a catalytic for Italian unification.
  4. Italian cities were centres of Renaissance
Events?
 
Carbonary
  1. Carbonary. Birth of secret organisation. The objective was to revolt and work for unification but in the absence of powerful and external support Carbonary was doomed to fail and Austria suppressed such revolts e.g suppression of revolts in 1820.
  2. Failure of carbonary gave the message to intellectual class that mass awakening is the important priority of unification.World History Notes UNIFICATION OF ITALY
Mass Awakening
The most important role was played by Mazzini who is also called the profet of Italian unification. He established Young Italy Movement which was a secret organisation. The motive was to awaken people. Austria was the biggest hurdle in unification.
Cavour
Played a very crucial role in unification. It gained strength from Vienna Congress and was never under the domination of Austria. The ruler Victor Immanuel was a liberal who introduced constitutional reforms in Sardinia. So it was an ideal stage to take up the cause.
Cavour was appointed the Chancellor of Sardinia. He was brave, forsighted and possessed intellectual personality.
  1. He took steps for economic and military empowerment of Sardinia.
  2. He was clear that foreign assistance was required for unification. To seek help from England and France he sent his army to Crimea to fight in the Crimean War against Russia although he had no grudge against Russia. Italian army played a very important role.
  3. In the Paris Peace Conference (1856) Cavour was invited as a representative of Italy. This was a diplomatic victory as Italy got acceptance as separate identity. But Italy got only assurance but there was no practical help.
  4. He turned towards France and promised Napolean III big gifts in return for his help. By the Treaty of Plombiers. Napolean accepted to give assistance. Sardinia fought a war against Austria and was successful.
  5. Austria traced the support to France and convinced Napolean III to stay away. Napolean III was a fickleminded person and so he pulled back his support. This was a blow to Cavour but the first phase of unification was completed.
Impact of Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
  1. Awakened people started demanding responsible government and constitution.
  2. Formation of revolutionary councils in 1860 in which activeness of people compelled most of the states to join Italian union.
Garibaldi
Naples, Sicily and Papal states had still not joined the union. Garibaldi with his Force of Thousands entered Naples and he was successful in getting complete mass support and forced the ruler of Naples to surrender. The story was repeated in Sicily and Papal states. Italy became a unified country and lived happily ever after !

World History Notes Unification of Italy Pdf Download for UPSC

EASTERN EUROPE
Background
  1. In 1453 Turks occupied Constantinople. One of the major areas of contention was Balkan countries. It had been under the rule of Ottoman Turks.  They started entering into Europe and occupied Eastern Europe. Turkish rulers never gave equal status to the people of Eastern Europe.
  2. The suppression and exploitation of Eastern European countries by Turks created the inspiration of independence among Eastern European Countries
  3. In 19th century Ottoman empire had begun to collapse. This led to revolts by various nationalities for independence. This came to be known as Eastern Question. There was a struggle between Turkey and Eastern European Nation.
Crimean War
  • In 1856 Russia was defeated in Crimean War. Britain and France supported Turkey to check Russian advancement.
Russia Turkey War
In 1877 Bulgaria attacked Turkey which was immediately joined by Russia leading to war between Russia and Turkey in 1877. Turkey was defeated and compelled for the Treaty of San Stefano. Under this
  1. Bulgaria became autonomous power under the protection of Russia
  2. Turkey accepted independence of Serbia, Greece, Montenegro etc.
  3. Black Sea was accepted as Russian Zone.
The other major powers became increasingly wary of Russian advancement and its influence in Eastern Europe. Germany called for Berline Congress to settle the question.

World History Notes Italy Unification Pdf Download for UPSC

Berlin Congress (1878)
  1. It was a meeting of leading statesmen of Great Powers of Europe and the Ottoman Empire.
  2. It was held after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. Russia had emerged victorious in the war and to curtail Russia’s gain Bismarck organised the conference.
  3. The aim was to reorganise the countries of Balkans. Ottoman Empire was called as the “sick man of Europe”.
  4. Bulgaria was established as independent principality within Ottoman Empire. Romania achieved full independence.
  5. Austria-Hungary took over Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cyprus was given to Britain.
  6. Black sea was declared a neutral zone.
  7. Russia was humiliated at Berlin.

World History Notes Italy Unification Pdf Download for UPSC

Download Free Study Material